A Macaque Model to Study Vaginal HSV-2/Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection and the Impact of HSV-2 on Microbicide Efficacy

A Macaque Model to Study Vaginal HSV-2/Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection and the Impact of HSV-2 on Microbicide Efficacy

Rhesus monkeys share about 93 percent of their genes with humans. Jordan Schaul examines the plight of the most wide-ranging, non-human primate on the planet—the rhesus monkey (aka the urban macaque). (2) During an epizootic in a breeding colony, B virus was isolated from 4 genital and 3 oral sites as well as from a skin lesion. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Elizabeth Griffin, 22, died of herpes B complications Dec. Although cervical lesions were detected in only ∼10% of the animals, long term HSV-2 DNA shedding was detected (in 50% of animals followed for 2 years). Vaginal HSV-2 exposure elicited local cytokine/chemokine (n = 12) and systemic low-level HSV-2-specific adaptive responses in all animals (n = 8), involving CD4+ and CD8+ HSV-specific T cells (n = 5).

A Macaque Model to Study Vaginal HSV-2/Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection and the Impact of HSV-2 on Microbicide Efficacy
B virus infection is caused by the zoonotic agent Macacine herpesvirus 1. Hiccups may occur as a result of nerve irritation. The lower molars also have four cusps: metaconid, protoconid, hypoconid, and entoconid. Copyright: © 2009 Crostarosa et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Exposures were more frequently reported during July–October (, panel B). They wouldn’t let anyone go out onto the water until they felt it was safe to do so.

And, over time, the incidence of emerging infectious diseases caused by wildlife pathogens has increased. The disease has not spread to their nervous systems, however, and both remain healthy. FC and OJA were supported by the F.M. It also stipulates that animals be euthanized during or after a procedure if they would otherwise endure chronic pain. According to Wildlife SOS co-founder Geeta Seshamani, the female was most likely an unscientific “release” by a municipality or well-intentioned release by an animal activist ignorant about the species behavior and ecology. Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) prevalence is between 19–50% in adults worldwide [1], [2] and increases the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition by ∼3 fold [3], [4]. If diarrhea was noted, fecal samples were collected and cultured for pathogenic enterobacteria, and the animal was treated accordingly.

HIV acquisition risk is increased during both the symptomatic and asymptomatic phases of genital herpes. Individuals with recently acquired HSV-2 infection showed a higher incidence of HIV acquisition (22.6% per 100 person-years) compared to chronically infected people (7.5% per 100 person-years) [5]. These findings correlate with the observation that, although HSV-2 results in a chronic infection, the frequency of symptomatic genital herpes reactivation decreases with time since infection [6].

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