A total of 308,036 women were selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). We performed a pooled analysis of seven case-control studies to examine the effect of one possible HPV cofactor, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection, in the etiology of invasive cervical cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that lifetime number of sex partners, first intercourse before age 15 years, number of livebirths, herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositivity, and serologic evidence of previous chlamydial infection were predictors of carcinoma in situ. Subsequently, several scientists have recreated tumors and cancers in animal models using a variety of viruses and chemicals in combination (Berenblum, 1954; Duran-Reynals, 1957; Martin et al., 1961; Rowson et al., 1961; Tanaka and Southam, 1962, 1965; Stoker, 1963; Salaman and Roe, 1964; Garrett et al., 1993). The paper here is an example of one aspect of revisionism, namely taking the trouble to track sources of information. The risk of tumors of both viral types increased with parity and use of oral contraceptives but not with injectable progestogens. Baseline seropositivity for HPV16 did not confer any increased risk for HPV18 DNA-positive cancer and conversely HPV18 seropositivity had no association with HPV16 DNA-positive cancers.
In summary, this novel multiplex real-time PCR allows the rapid and specific detection of HPV16/18 and HSV1/2, as well as coinfection with HPV and HSV, in clinical samples. In the tissue sections from patients with squamous cell cervical carcinoma, C.