Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in immunocompromised patients are more severe and invasive than in non-immunocompromised patients. Sea cucumber is among the marine organisms a traditional food item in Asia with different applications in traditional medicine. These may progress to hemiparesis and seizures. The extrinsic antiviral activity was limited to the adherent peritoneal macrophage population. The treatment with (PhSe)2 (5 mg/kg/day, intragastric [i.g.]) followed 5 days before and for more 5 days after infection. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a “zero” moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication. At day 11, animals were killed, and histological evaluation, determination of viral load, and TNF-α and IFN-γ levels were performed in supernatants of homogenized vaginal tissue.
The levels of reactive species (RS), protein carbonyl, non-protein thiols (NPSH), nitrate/nitrite (NOx), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) were determined. The results showed that Holothuria sp, water extract has remarkable antiviral effect against HSV-1 in cell culture and it is crucial to investigate the mechanism(s) of action of extract. Development of new antiviral drugs or other types of therapies is desirable. The antiviral effects required viable macrophages; cell lysates did not inhibit virus growth. The antiviral action of (PhSe)2 against HSV-2 infection was related to its immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. J. Cell.
Biochem. 117: 1638–1648, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.