BMC Microbiology

BMC Microbiology

Robert Belshe, M.D., is the lead author of research on a genital herpes vaccine, reported in the New England Journal of Medicine. Vaccine formulation consisted of three recombinant herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins, namely gB1s, gD2t and gE1t, plus aluminium hydroxide [Al(OH)3)] adjuvant. Mass spectrum (quadrupole time of flight [Q-TOF]) analyses of multimeric scFv demonstrated extensive heterogeneity due to differential cleavage, variable glycosylation (1 to 9 mannose residues), and the incorporation of minor unidentified adducts. The prevalence of HSV-2 in the general population ranges from 10%-60%, indicating that genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases [2, 8]. Vaccine found to be effective against HSV-1 but not against HSV-2. As the clinical appearance of genital HSV infection varies from unspecific symptoms to typically painful lesions [10], only 10-25% of people who are seropositive for HSV-2 are aware that they have genital herpes. Overall, recombinant multimerized scFv5-2L potentially provides a high-potency therapeutic and immunodiagnostic reagent against BoHV-1, which is suitable for passive immunization and topical application.

BMC Microbiology
Vertical transmission of HSV to neonates is associated with a high mortality rate and a high incidence of neurological sequelae in survivors [12]. We didn’t use protection. To date, the treatment and prevention of primary and recurrent disease is limited [15]. Antibody fragments against human or animal pathogens can be produced economically in plants, mammalian cells, or microorganism-based expression systems such as Escherichia coli or Pichia pastoris. Considering the general impact of HSV-1 diseases and rising importance of primary genital herpes caused by HSV-1, a desirable vaccine should be capable of offering effective protective immunity against both HSV subtypes. What HSV-1 infection did appear to do was to prevent symptoms when the individual became infected with the genital herpes virus, HSV-2. Subunit vaccines containing gD in combination with an adjuvant appeared to be safe and effective against genital herpes in guinea pigs [18–20], but failed to provide general protection in clinical trials [21, 22].

BoHV-1 is an etiological agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle (19, 23). However, the use of replication-defective viruses, particularly when used in latently infected individuals, imposes certain risks, as they might regain replication competence in the presence of wild-type virus or reactivate latent wild-type virus infections [24]. We conclude that the truly asymptomatic HSV1 infected individuals shed two different HSV1 strains as well as recombinants. To increase its safety and vaccine efficacy against HSV infections, we recently constructed a CJ83193-derived HSV-1 recombinant CJ9-gD by replacing the essential UL9 gene with an extra copy of the HSV-1 gD (gD1) gene under the control of the tetO-bearing hCMV major immediate-early promoter [27]. cattle industry up to 3 billion dollars annually (10). Moreover, CJ9-gD is completely replication-defective and causes no detectable infection in trigeminal ganglia after ocular or nasal infection in mice [27]. Vitamin D is a powerful natural antiviral, which is why we bang the drum about vitamin D therapy for colds and especially flu every chance we get.

Immunization with CJ9-gD protects mice against HSV-1 ocular keratitis and guinea pigs against HSV-1 skin disease [27, 30] as well as genital herpetic disease caused by wild-type HSV-1 and HSV-2 in mice [29]. We demonstrate here the development of a functional multimeric scFv with a 2-amino-acid linker against BoHV-1 with improved in vitro virus neutralization potency, as a result of increased avidity via multimerization. The guinea pig model of HSV-2 genital infection offers a unique advantage over the mouse model to investigate the efficacy of candidate HSV vaccine in protection against primary and recurrent HSV-2 genital infection and disease. We were partially successful against half of the equation — protecting women from genital disease caused by HSV-1, said Belshe. In contrast to mice in which spontaneous reactivation from latent infection rarely occurs in the vaginal tract, guinea pigs undergo episodic spontaneous recurrent infection and disease after recovering from initial genital disease [31, 32]. Hybridoma.A mouse × cattle xenogeneic hybridoma, HB9907 (ATCC, Rockville, MD) (17), secreting monoclonal IgG1 antibody against BoHV-1, provided cDNA, the genetic source of rearranged VHDHJH and VλJλ genes.

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BMC Microbiology

BMC Microbiology

The DNA of herpesvirus pan, a primate B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, shares about 40% well-conserved sequence relatedness with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and herpesvirus papio DNAs. The viruses are evaluated in separate monographs, which consider the biology of the virus, the epidemiology of infections, related animal viruses, and mechanistic studies, in addition to abundant studies of cancer in humans. The results show that none of these individuals harbored EBV in their blood or throat washings. The quantification of late EBV transcripts may bring additional information to EBV DNA quantification for the understanding and follow-up of EBV-associated disease, as already demonstrated for other herpes viruses (8)(9)(10)(11). Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) in HIV infected is thought to reflect “de novo” HHV-8 infection, not reactivation. However, several fatty acid HDAC inhibitors, such as isobutyrate and phenylbutyrate, did not reactivate EBV. Their analyses revealed that M81 is highly similar to other viruses isolated from NPCs and profoundly different from Western strains in terms of its ability to infect and replicate within cells.

Unlike the cellular BCL-2 family antagonists, BALF1 lacked proapoptotic activity and could not be converted into a proapoptotic factor in a manner similar to cellular BCL-2 proteins by caspase cleavage or truncation of the N terminus. EBV-encoded small RNA-1 and EBV-associated nuclear antigen 1 were expressed in Ts-B6 cells, the tumor tissues, and all rabbit cell lines by in situ hybridization and by immunofluorescence tests, respectively. New biologic therapies, based on an increasing understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in RA, afford a more normal life to many, but the burden of disease remains high. For HHV-8, none of PAH lung samples showed a “stippling” nuclear pattern classically observed in HHV-8-positive Kaposi sarcoma lesions. The virus also encodes two structural homologues of Bcl-2: BHRF1 [10, 11] and the less well characterised and more controversial BALF1 [12, 13] which are thought to play their major roles during lytic infection. doi:10.1126/science.1096781. Despite being considered dispensable for EBV replication or cellular transformation in vitro [15, 16], BHRF1 is extremely highly conserved in distinct geographical isolates of EBV [17], and its role in vivo remains unclear.
BMC Microbiology

Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Additionally, EBV BHRF1 has been shown to suppress apoptosis in lymphoid cells in response to a range of triggers including serum deprivation [11], DNA damaging agents and chemotherapeutic drugs [22] and cytokines [23]. It is possible then, that BHRF1 may play a role at some stage during latent infection, which warrants the study of this protein in B cells, the target for latent infection. Analogues of EBV are found in the higher primate species. Herpesvirus papio (H. papio) and Herpesvirus pan (H.

This is thought to occur via a reversal of the route of viral entry, involving the reinfection of epithelial cells by virus carrying B lymphocytes circulating through the lymphoid tissue of the oropharynx. The P3HR1 and B95-8 B-cell lines spontaneously release viral particles. HIV-positive patients with HHV-8 positive serology had large, medium, and small lymph nodes. pan BHRF1 is even more similar at 82% identity and 90% similarity [24]. H. papio BHRF1 has been shown to confer resistance to cisplatin induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes akin to EBV BHRF1 [25], but this study represents the first functional analysis of a primate virus BHRF1 in a lymphoid cell background. Here we show that H.

Viruses including Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), parvovirus B19, HTLV-1, human herpesvirus-6, human herpesvirus-8, and human endogenous retroviruses-5 have all been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of RA [31-35,41-44]. These results show that H. pan BHRF1 is biologically active in human B-lymphocytes in vitro suggesting a conserved role for BHRF1 during in vivo infection of B-lymphocytes.

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