Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is making news due to a paper by Jing et al identifying two promising new candidate antigens for a vaccine. A.They are an indispensable aid in medical education and research. In herpesvirus infection, fusion events occur during penetration, nuclear egress and virus release at the plasma membrane. Rab6-dependent virus production did not require the effectors myosin-II, bicaudal-D, dynactin-1 or rabkinesin-6, but was facilitated by ERC1, a factor involved in linking microtubules to the cell cortex. 137, 259 – 272. Researchers investigated the mechanism behind IFN-λ’s anti-HSV-1 effect and found that IFN-λ activated several Type 1 IFNs. Journal of Virology, 86(6), 2919 – 2929.
If anything, I’m probably a better person, and my HSV [Herpes Simplex Virus] status has nothing to do with who I am,’ Lance, 41, explained. We previously reported the observations of unusual trafficking properties of VP22 whereby after being synthesized in a subpopulation of cells, in which it appeared largely cytoplasmic, the protein could also be observed in adjacent cells where it accumulated mainly in the nucleus (4). Under these conditions, routine light microscopic analyses are not useful in studying morphological changes. Harris A, Cardone G, Winkler DC, Heymann JB, Brecher M, White JM, Steven AC (2006) Influenza virus pleiomorphy characterized by cryoelectron tomography. Note the regularization and compaction of the protruding domains. Plasmids that contain a simian virus 40 (SV40) origin of DNA replication can become associated with ND10, but only if the SV40 large T antigen (which binds to the origin sequences and promotes DNA replication) is present (40). Both HSV-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) use glycoprotein B (gB) and glycoprotein C to mediate their initial attachment to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans.
Here’s what you need to know about genital herpes – one of every six people is infected with this type of genital herpes. An icosahedrally symmetrized cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction of intraviral capsids detected extended density features associated with the vertices (44). The subunits of known bacteriophage portals vary in size from ~ 36 kDa to ~ 83 kDa (Agirrezabala et al., 2005b). Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) establishes lifelong latent infections in the peripheral nervous system. The HSV genome encodes at least 74 genes [15, 16]. Biol. We have previously investigated tegument protein localization during infection by constructing a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in which a major tegument gene, namely, the UL49 gene encoding VP22, was replaced with the gene for a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-22 fusion protein (9).
The first method uses a mixed infection of isogenic recombinant viruses, each expressing a different fluorophore to calculate the average number of genomes expressed in infected cells. Oncolytic HSV therapy has shown to be effective against multiple tumor types including lung, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, gallbladder, hepatic, pancreatic, bladder cancer and mesothelioma(13-22). Everett (CVR, Glasgow, United Kingdom), G. Previous studies also showed that the engagement of α4β1-integrins resulted in phospholipase C (PLC) activation and an increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations (27, 30). Heymann JB, Cheng N, Newcomb WW, Trus BL, Brown JC and Steven, A.C. In the adult, EndMT contributes to pathologic fibrosis in the heart and kidneys (15–17), to cancer progression by generating carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (18), and to heterotopic bone formation in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (19). For all imaging experiments, we use an inverted, automated, epifluorescence illumination microscope (Figure 1B).
VP16 is responsible for transcriptional regulation of immediate-early (IE) genes and is also involved in the modulation of the activities of early and late virus genes (7, 48, 49). Journal of Biological Chemistry 280(8), 7156 – 7161. Transfection Assays. These findings indicated a specific role for ubiquitination in neurons during infection. Heymann JB, Winkler DC, Yim YI, Eisenberg E, Greene LE and Steven AC (2013) Clathrin-Coated Vesicles from Brain Have Small Payloads: A Cryo-Electron Tomographic Study. Testing isogenic HSV and PRV XFP-NLS viruses. Heymann JB, Bartho JD, Rybakova D, Venugopal HP, Winkler DC, Sen A, Hurst MRH and Mitra AK (2013) 3-dimensional structure of the toxin-delivery particle antifeeding prophage of Serratia entomophila.
The shingles attack may last longer than chickenpox, and the patient may need medication for pain, but in most cases the body has the inner resources to fight back. Keller PW, Adamson CS, Heymann JB, Freed EO and Steven AC (2011) The HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitor Bevirimat Binds to and Stabilizes the Immature Gag Lattice. Journal of Virology, 85(4), 1420 – 1428. Keller PW, Huang RK, England M, Waki K, Cheng N, Heymann JB, Craven R, Freed EO and Steven AC (2013) Retroviral CA can mature by a disassembly-reassembly pathway to produce viable virions or by a displacive pathway to produce aberrant virions. Journal of Virology 87(24), 13655-13664. Nemecek D, Boura E, Wu W, Cheng N, Plevka P, Qiao J, Mindich L, Heymann JB, Hurley JH and Steven AC (2013) Novel fold and maturation pathway of a dsRNA virus capsid. Structure 21(8), 1374-1383.
Nemecek D, Heymann JB, Qiao J, Mindich L and Steven AC (2010) Cryo-electron tomography of bacteriophage φ6 procapsids shows random occupancy of the binding sites for RNA polymerase and packaging NTPase. The process of autophagy functions to maintain cellular homeostasis by clearing damaged cellular organelles and protein aggregates from the cytoplasm . Detection of the major capsid protein ICP5, was used to illustrate infection of samples at each point, with overexposed (OE) blots showing the presence of viral capsids in samples as early as 1 hpi (B) Fixed samples were stained for Ac-tubulin (Ac-MTs; red) or capsid protein, ICP5 (green). S1 in the supplemental material), and pAAVlacO were described previously (9, 13). The cells were lysed by Dounce homogenization, and the insoluble material was pelleted by centrifugation at 10,000 rpm in a JA-14 rotor for 20 min at 4°C. The scaffolding protein and protease were partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation of cell lysates as described previously (16). Each primer was paired with a reverse-complement primer and used in a sequential overlap extension PCR to produce the mutant allele, which was subsequently cloned into the pGS284 allelic exchange vector and recombined with pGS847, resulting in pGS950 and pGS1015 (18).
Sen A, Heymann JB, Cheng N, Qiao J, Mindich L and Steven AC (2008) Initial location of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the bacteriophage φ6 procapsid determined by cryo-electron microscopy. All PRV strains were propagated in PK15 cells. HSV1-GS2843 is a dual-fluorescence strain that encodes both mRFP1-VP26 and GFP-gB and was isolated by recombining egfp into the pGS2822 infectious clone. and Steven AC (2001). UL35 encodes the VP26 capsid protein. HSV-1 MT01 and PRV 289, both expressing Turq2-3xNLS, were derived as follows. Virol.
The total numbers of capsids present on randomly chosen cells were determined by counting the number of diffraction-limited green spots, and the proportion having envelopes was determined by colocalization between GFP (capsid) and Alexa Fluor 568 (envelope) signals.