Herpesvirus Papio (HVP) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) share both biological and biochemical properties. Recently, DNA sequences from a new human herpesvirus called KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or human herpesvirus type 8 have been found in KS tumor lesions in high frequency. The amino acid sequences of EBNA1 of HVP and EBV are 56% identical, if the difference in the length of the glycine and alanine containing repetitive region, which is much shorter for HVP EBNA1, is omitted for the calculation. Computer analysis of the SM protein sequence showed a C terminal section of SM to be related to genome positional homologues of four other herpesviruses and revealed consensus CKII sites near the N tarmini of the EBV SM protein, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) ICP27 protein and the herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) open reading frame 57 protein. They were tentatively assigned to a novel genogroup of Old World primate LCV. Following a primary infection, these viruses establish lifelong latency and can reactivate under certain conditions. Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted.
OHK displayed hyperploid karyotypes with multiple structural abnormalities, and produced some cytokines such as macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), granulocyte-CSF, interleukin 6 and transforming growth factor beta 1. In this regard, haloperidol, a non-phenothiazine calmodulin antagonist, and R24571, a derivative of the antimycotic miconazole, which is a potent and highly specific calmodulin inhibitor, also blocked EBV infection. Revision received December 2, 1980. This dark side to what’s a relatively common infection has been felt in some parts of the world more than others. “This book is well presented and comprehensive, with a good mix of topics. In brief, paraffin-embedded tissues are deparaffinized using xylene and wash the pellet twice with ethanol. This technology not only helps better identify etiological agents, but it can also better define cancers and/or specimens that are truly not associated with any known viruses.
Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References. Tedeschi, R., Bioigu A., Ogmundsdottir H.M., Marus A., Dillner J., dePaoll P., Gudnadottir M., Koskela P., Pukkala E., Lehtinen T., and Lehtinen M. HPV vaccines began their development in the early 1990s and were rolled out as part of a national programme to immunise schoolgirls in the UK in 2008. The vaccination programme is predicted to save thousands of lives in the future. And finding a similar way to prevent EBV infection could stop cancers caused by the virus developing, and save lives. But for Lane, there are potentially even bigger benefits ahead – and it’s not just about vaccines. He believes that some of the reasons why an EBV vaccine hasn’t progressed as far as it could have are a lack of political will and limited backing from the pharmaceutical industry.
Dr Emma King, a leading head and neck surgeon at the University of Southampton, is carrying out clinical trials testing new ways to boost the immune response against cancers, many of which are caused by the HPV virus. EBV, cercopithecine herpesvirus 15 (CeHV-15) (25), and CalHV-3 (26) have been completely sequenced (accession no. Cells incubated in the absence of drug were used as controls. For example, it could involve combining a vaccine with a drug that stops cancer cells hiding from immune cells, or combining radiotherapy with immune boosting drugs. As a patient representative I’ve always struggled with the many acronyms within the projects I’ve been involved in. Going back and forth until they are fully ingested reminds me of when I was a youngster at school learning my lines for the school play. Reading question two of the Grand Challenge another acronym for a cause of cancer pops up – EBV- Epstein-Barr Virus.
As with the first challenge, developing a vaccine could be the answer for preventing infection with EBV. But as with all of the Grand Challenge questions it’s more complex, requiring a change in the way research is usually done. According to the Chi-square test, no significant statistical association was observed between the prevalence of HHV-6 and gender (P = 0.48). The results were then fed into MEGAN 4 version 4.70.4 (15) for visualization of taxonomic classifications. ‘Imagine’ was a much used word, along with ‘Reach for the stars’ and ‘If we don’t try we’ll never succeed’. The cancer world is full of acronyms, an ABC of symptoms, causes, types, and treatments. There are no acronyms for cure.
Taking on a challenge with this attitude and breaking out of the comfort zone of acronyms is exactly what’s needed to eradicate EBV-induced cancers from the world. Research has revealed a lot about EBV – and other viruses linked to cancer – over the past 50 years, but the story is just beginning. The viruses themselves are only part of the picture; our genetics and environment also combine to play a role in cancer developing. But with all the knowledge we have, curing, or preventing, EBV-linked cancers seems within reach – it just needs that investment to make it a reality. And the Grand Challenge could provide exactly that.