Canterbury Health Centre – Sending your child to school or keeping at home

Canterbury Health Centre - Sending your child to school or keeping at home

The tonsils are lymph nodes in the back of the mouth and top of the throat. In addition, the tonsils produce antibodies that prevent viral and bacterial infections. Sometimes the infection spreads from the tonsils to the sinuses, nasal passages or ears. There are several variations of tonsillitis: acute, recurrent, and chronic tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess. Serological examination showed that, among 12 cases positive by in situ hybridization, 3 cases were primary infection with infectious mononucleosis and 9 were nonprimary infection. Tonsillitis is usually characterized by moderate to severe tonsil pain, and usually goes away on its own in the case of a viral infection. Knowing more about the causes, symptoms, and treatment for tonsillitis will give you a better understanding of how you can avoid having this uncomfortable concern – and how you can make the road to a recovery a shorter one when you already have tonsillitis.

Bacteria, such as those that cause strep throat Fungi, such as in those that cause a yeast infection Allergies, like hay fever or allergies affecting the nose Sinus infection Cancers Injuries Irritants, like cigarette smoke or air pollution Stomach acids in the throat Who is at risk for pharyngitis and tonsillitis? Children with chickenpox can pass it to others from 1-2 days before the rash appears until 5 days after the rash has started. A child who has had chickenpox will be immune for life. shingles. The remaining 10% probably all utilize members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family.26 Two pharmaceutical companies (Boehringer Ingelheim and Bayer) have managed to produce truncated, soluble forms of ICAM-1 by genetic engineering; since free ICAM-1 will attach to the rhinovirus binding sites, the virus should effectively be ‘neutralized’ and prevented from attaching to the cell-surface receptors and initiating replication. The answer to this common question is a bit tricky. Chickenpox is highly infectious and it is very difficult to prevent it spreading from person to person.

Sensation of chill and presence of fever. Some common bacteria and viruses include adenoviruses, Epstein -Barr virus, parainfluenza virus, herpes simplex virus, etc. IF it is tonsillitis depending on how bad it is you may need to get your tonsils removed. If your child has chickenpox, please let the school know in case other children, parents or teachers need to avoid infection for medical reasons. If you are pregnant and have been in contact with a child with chickenpox and you have never had chickenpox, please see your GP as soon as possible. Swelling of the eyes, face, and neck may occur. In many cases, tonsillitis is curable.

These probiotics also help maintain the friendly bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract during and after the use of medicines that may disrupt the intestinal flora. Neck nodes may be enlarged. They have a tendency to recur because the cold sore virus does not disappear from the body completely after the infection. Anti-inflammatory drugs: The swelling of the tonsils is brought down using anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. Penicillin is the most common class of antibiotics prescribed for the treatment of tonsillitis; for those who are allergic to penicillin, erythromycin is prescribed instead. Some teas have ingredients that soothe the throat. They are usually spread by kissing since the virus is active in the cold sore blister.

The virus can also be picked up by touching the sores, and thus spread to others. Children infected for the first time may shed the virus for several weeks . Novel agents (e.g. The most effective method of prevention is to avoid contact with oral secretions and the blisters of an infected person. Hands must be thoroughly washed after touching cold sores. ( one forth teaspoon of salt would be enough in half a cup of water) several times a day. Tonsils may also become inflamed due to mononucleosis which can be characterized by spleen enlargement.

I have to say that someone who is related to a dental professional doesn’t know ANYTHING compared to an actual doctor. Conjunctivitis (also known as red – or pink eye or sticky eye) is a condition that causes the surface of the conjunctiva to become inflamed. This can be caused by a number of bacteria, viruses, allergies or foreign bodies. It is a common condition, particularly in children but is usually a self-limiting disease. The usual symptoms are watering of the eye, itching, soreness and redness. This may be followed by a yellowish sticky discharge, which can cause the eyelids to stick together, making them difficult to open. Current guidelines recommend against the use of antibiotics if the strep test is negative.

The white of the eye may appear pink or red. It can last from 2 days to 2 weeks. Conjunctivitis is easily spread through contact with the discharges from the infected eye and by the coughs and sneezes of people with the infection. Often it is spread by the affected child rubbing their eyes and then touching objects which then become contaminated. This provides an opportunity for the infection to spread to the next child having contact with the object. Good standards of personal hygiene prevent spread, particularly regular hand washing. Conjunctivitis caused by bacteria may need to be treated with antibiotic drops or cream.

There is no treatment for viral conjunctivitis. Affected children should be discouraged from rubbing their eyes and having close facial contact with other children. Children whose eyes are sticky or producing pus should stay away from school until the infection has cleared. Children who have ‘pink eye’, but whose eyes are not producing pus do not need to stay away from school. Measles is one of the most infectious viral diseases and is also one of the most dangerous of children’s diseases, sometimes leading to serious complications and long-term health problems. (+ info) What are some good natural cures/reliefs for tonsillitis? Measles feels just like flu at first along with pink eyes, a runny nose and a cough.

The flu like feeling lasts for about 4-7 days before a red blotchy rash develops. This rash usually starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body and can last for 4-7 days. Measles is usually a mild illness, although sometimes it can be severe and can cause ear and chest infections. It may result in brain damage and rarely, death. It is usually spread from person to person by coughs and sneezes. People with the illness can pass it to others from shortly before the symptoms start until about five days after the rash appears. Once a person has had the disease, they cannot catch it again.

The only effective way to prevent measles is to immunise all children against it with the MMR vaccine. This is part of the routine programme of childhood immunisation and consists of 2 doses. The MMR also gives protection against Rubella (German Measles) and Mumps. If your child has not been immunised against measles or their immunisation programme is incomplete, it is strongly ecommended that they are vaccinated with MMR. This will not only protect your children from the illness but will also prevent the spread of measles to others. To help prevent the spread of measles within school, children with measles should stay away from school until five days after the beginning of the rash. If your child has a condition or is having treatment which suppresses their immune system, you should see your GP immediately and tell him/her that your child may have been in contact with measles.

Hand, foot and mouth disease is a mild viral illness caused by the Coxsackie virus that often occurs in epidemics. It is most common in young children but can occur in adults. This infection is completely unrelated to the ‘Foot and Mouth’ disease in animals – that is caused by a different virus. The illness usually starts with a sore throat and then ulcers may develop in the inside of the mouth and blisters on the hands and feet. There may also be a fever. Unlike chickenpox, these blisters are not itchy and usually last between 4 and 10 days. The illness is usually mild and can even occur without any symptoms.

Adults and older children may develop a mild form of the illness, but this is rare. The illness can be spread by coughs and sneezes or the stools of people with the infection. It can also be passed on during social contact. Symptoms develop between 3 and 5 days after contact with a case. A person is infectious until the blisters fade, though the virus can be excreted for up to 4 weeks after the onset of the illness. Impetigo is a common superficial skin infection caused by a bacterium called staphylococcus aureus or staphylococcus pyogenes. It is contagious and is quite common in young children aged 4 years and under.

Canterbury Health Centre - Sending your child to school or keeping at home
The face is the most commonly affected area but impetigo can occur on any part of the body. At first, small blisters develop which then burst to leave small scabby patches on the skin. These crusted lesions are often yellow in colour, sometimes itch and can spread in small clusters to surrounding areas of skin. Impetigo spreads from person to person mainly by direct contact with the infected skin or the hands of people with the infection. On rare occasions it may also be caught from objects that have been used by people with impetigo, such as clothes and towels. Regular hand washing using soap and water is the most important way in which impetigo can be prevented. This is very important for people who are in close contact with someone with impetigo.

All children with impetigo should be kept away from school until their skin has healed or until 48 hours after any anti-biotic treatment has begun. Children coming into contact with someone with impetigo do not require any treatment or exclusion from school. The most striking feature is a bright red rash on the face, which looks like ‘slapped cheeks’ followed by a lacy pink rash all over the body. The illness is very mild, with little or no fever. Many adults have already got anti-bodies to this infection and are immune. Adults who get the infection may get joint pains or arthritis. People with sickle cell anaemia or thalassaemia can become anaemic as a result of the infection.

In very rare cases, women who get the infection when they are in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy may have a miscarriage, or the baby may develop anaemia. However, 95% of women who catch this infection during pregnancy do not have any problems at all. Children who have sickle cell anaemia, thalassaemia, or who are immunosuppressed, and pregnant women, should see their GP if they have been in contact with this disease. A blood test is available to test for immunity and the GP will be able to advise if any further action is needed. The usual symptoms are fever, headache, muscle aches, severe tiredness, sore throat and cough. Sickness and diarrhoea can occur, especially in children. It is sometimes accompanied or followed by chest infections that can be severe, however it is generally a milder illness in children.

It often occurs in epidemics, most commonly in the winter. Flu is spread from person to person by coughs and sneezes. It can spread rapidly within families and schools where there are many people living close together. Flu can be passed on to other people for 3-5 days after symptoms start. There are no specific treatments but there are many remedies available from pharmacists to ease the symptoms. There are no specific treatments but there are many remedies available from pharmacists to ease the symptoms. Children should NOT be given any preparations containing aspirin.

If you are in any doubt about the contents of a ‘flu’ remedy, please check with the pharmacist. Children affected by influenza should be encouraged to rest and drink plenty of water or other fluids and should be encouraged to cover their mouths when coughing and use paper tissues when sneezing. Each year vaccines against the likely common types of the virus are prepared and should be given to people at risk, particularly the elderly and those with chronic heart, chest or kidney diseases. Healthy children and adults do not need immunisation. Children should not return to school until they have had at least 48 hours without a fever or any of the symptoms mentioned above, as they are still infectious. Any contacts of children with flu should go to school as normal. If a child has any symptoms whilst at school, the parent will be asked to collect them as soon as possible to limit the spread of illness to other children.

It is also advisable for them to stay away from people who are likely to suffer more serious illness, should as the very young, the elderly and those with chronic health problems. The usual symptoms are tiredness, fever and sore throat and swollen tender glands, particularly in the neck but also in the armpit and groin. Rarely the child may be jaundiced. In young children the disease is generally mild. Once the acute stage has settled, the child can be left with little energy or stamina for several weeks. Glandular fever is spread through saliva by the coughs of people with the infection, or by kissing – it is sometimes known as the “kissing disease”. Some people with the infection are able to pass it on for many months afterwards.

Hepatitis A is a common infection caused by a virus. It sometimes leads to inflammation of the liver and causes a temporary yellow discoloration of the skin known as jaundice. Many infections occur without symptoms particularly in children; and many infections are mild and without jaundice. Serious complications are very rare. When symptoms do occur, the onset is usually sudden with fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, feeling sick and abdominal discomfort followed within a few days by jaundice. When a person becomes jaundiced they often develop light coloured stools and dark urine. Control of infection is  difficult because people with Hepatitis A are usually most infectious for a week or two before symptoms appear until a week after the onset of jaundice.

Spread of Hepatitis A is reduced by simple hygienic measures particularly thorough hand washing after using the toilet. An injection of Hepatitis A vaccine given to contacts of cases soon after exposure to the virus will prevent or reduce the severity of the illness in those who have not had the vaccine previously. Children with hepatitis A infection should stay away from school until 7 days after onset of jaundice or until they are well. Contacts of cases should also stay away from school, and should see the GP if they have symptoms suggestive of the illness. Diarrhoea and vomiting can be caused by infective agents (i.e. bacteria and viruses) or by chemicals. It is often difficult to find the cause without carrying out special laboratory tests.

Until proven otherwise, all cases of diarrhoea and vomiting should be treated as infectious. Diarrhoea is actually a symptom and not a disease. By diarrhoea we mean the stools are abnormally loose and frequent. The diarrhoea can vary in severity and there may be other symptoms such as fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. This depends upon the underlying cause. Germs causing diarrhoea and vomiting pass from the gut of one person to another. The germs are excreted in the stools of people with the illness.

If hands are not washed properly, people ill with diarrhoea and/or vomiting can carry the germs on their hands and spread them to other places, for example taps, doors, food etc. Other people can then pick up the germs on their hands and by putting their fingers in their mouths or by handling food, the germs enter their mouths and they become infected. This is called ‘hand to mouth’ or ‘faecal-oral’ spread. Diseases causing diarrhoea and vomiting can sometimes be spread by eating or drinking contaminated food or water. Good hygiene is the most important way to prevent these diseases. It is necessary to practice good hygiene at all times as diarrhoeal disease can spread rapidly and it is not always easy to identify cases early enough to stop them spreading their illness to others. Children should be taught about the importance of both personal hygiene and of hygienic practices when serving, preparing and eating food.

Good hygiene is especially important at home as these diseases also spread rapidly within the community. Everyone should wash their hands thoroughly with soap and hot water after every visit to the toilet and before handling or eating food. Young children will need help to make sure their hands are properly washed. Toilet bowls, seats and flush handles along with any other surfaces that may have been touched by contaminated hands (i.e. door handles, taps etc.) should be  disinfected daily. A simple solution of a disinfectant at the correct dilution is all that is required. To help prevent the spread of infection within schools, all children with diarrhoea and/or vomiting should stay away from school until 48 hours after the diarrhoea and/or vomiting has stopped.

If your child develops diarrhoea or is sent home with diarrhoea, it is important to tell the school the exact diagnosis once this is known, as it will help in deciding whether any further action is necessary. Tonsillitis usually presents with a sore throat, which may be severe. The tonsils are usually swollen and red, and may show spots of pus, or be covered with a white film of pus. There is often a very high fever, and headache. The glands in the neck are often swollen and the neck may be stiff and tender. Mumps is an infectious viral disease caused by the paramyxovirus. It mainly affects the alivary glands, but sometimes other parts of the body are affected.

Mumps usually affects children but can affect any age group. increasing temperature. This is followed by the onset of discomfort and swelling of the parotid glands, which are situated below the ears and normally cannot be felt. The swelling can be in both glands or just one side and can cause the earlobes to stick out and the face to appear swollen. The mouth may feel dry and swallowing can be painful. Symptoms usually last for 3 or 4 days but can last for more than a week. Adult women may suffer inflammation of the ovaries and adult men may experience swelling of the testicles.

Only on very rare occasions does this lead to sterility. The mumps virus is a common cause of viral meningitis, which is usually very mild and has no after effects. Mumps is usually spread from person to person by coughs and sneezes. Less often, it may be spread by direct contact with the saliva of someone with mumps. People with mumps can pass it to others from shortly before the symptoms start until just after the swelling has gone. If your child has not been immunised against mumps it is strongly recommended that they should be. This will not only protect your children from the illness but will also prevent the spread of mumps to others.

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