Varicella simplex

Varicella simplex

Varicella simplex
Mononukleoza može izazvati niz komplikacija ukoliko se ne leči pravovremeno. Ponekad se, međutim, ove bolesti sa dece prenesu na odrasle u zrelom dobu. Zbog ove značajke može se odrediti da se isključuje mogućnost ugovaranja boginje kroz stavke koriste bolesne osobe isključuju mogućnost zaraze preko trećih osoba. Inkubacija traje od 15 do 50 dana, nakon čega se razvija akutni oblik bolesti (hronični tip ne postoji). Izvor zaraze su bolesne sa svježim herpesnih erupcije i nosača koji oslobađaju virus u okolinu. Zajednica stečene pneumonije znači da se bolest prenosi s osobe na osobu u svom okruženju. Idealan ishod liječenja – doživotna asimptomatski nositelj.

Posle nekoliko dana, tečnost nestane i umesto plika javlja se krastica, koja otpadne za najviše sedam dana. Kod zdrave djece varičela ima blagi tok i rijetko se dešavaju komplikacije. Početna eflorescencija je mala makulo-papula, koja posle nekoliko sati prelazi u vezikulu a ova ubrzo zatim u pustulu iz koje se na kraju stvara krusta. Pored toga virusi se mogu prenositi i indirektnim kontaktom, recimo, preko čaše koja je kontaminirana, zagađene hrane i vode (često i  na bazenima).Ono što je svakako olakšavajuća okolnost za mnoge roditelje,je ta da se meningitis simptomi kod dece najčešće javljaju upravo u ovom obliku,koji nije toliko opasan,pod uslovom da se leči na vreme.Obično ima blag tok, dobru prognozu i prolazi bez ozbiljnijih posledica. Pored vidnog napretka u molekularnoj genetici, kao i modernim serološkim testovima, uzrok ponavljanja bolesti tj. Hlamidija je jedan od najčešćih uzročnika upale pluća novorođenčeta kao i infekcije oka. Valja naglasiti da osip može biti sasvim oskudan, ali i obilan tako da prekrije kožu cijelog tijela.

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Tenascin-C expression in normal, inflamed, and scarred human corneas. – PubMed

Tenascin-C expression in normal, inflamed, and scarred human corneas. - PubMed

Tenascin-C expression in normal, inflamed, and scarred human corneas. - PubMed
Ohno D, Matsuda H. of cases Keratoconus 34.2 (171) Regrafts 17.2 (86) Bullous keratopathy 12.6 (63) Corneal dystrophies 8.6 (43) Fuchs’ dystrophy 6.2 (31) Interstitial keratitis 4.0 (20) Viral keratitis 3.2 (16) Suppurative keratitis 3.0 (15) Corneal degeneration 2.2 (11) Other indications 2.2 (11) Trauma 2.0 (10) Corneal scarring 2.0 (10) Limbal lesions 1.4 (7) Melting disorders 1.2 (6) operated upon and the age distribution at keratoplasty is shown in Fig. Accordingly, we established a new technical approach in which lymphocytes were cornea-eluted, further purified and characterized by means of monoclonal antibodies. What increases your risk of keratitis? This month, we’ll briefly consider the healthy cornea, discuss some of the worst-case scenarios for keratitis, and describe how these concepts are driving some of the newest ideas in therapies designed to heal the damaged ocular surface. Many schools send children with conjunctivitis home. Many times the syphilis is congenital and will affect both eyes (though not always at the same time).

In pathological corneas, TN2 immunopositivity was localised in and around regions of active inflammation, fibrosis, and neovascularisation. TN2 positivity was less in acute inflammation than in active chronic inflammation. They rely on a compromised corneal epithelium to cause infection. These results indicate that in the adult human cornea, TN-C expression is induced in regions of inflammation, fibrosis, and neovascularisation, but that expression is absent in mature, avascular scar tissue. This suggests a role for this glycoprotein in inflammation, healing, and extracellular matrix reorganisation of the cornea.

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A Deubiquitinating Activity Is Conserved in the Large Tegument Protein of the Herpesviridae

A Deubiquitinating Activity Is Conserved in the Large Tegument Protein of the Herpesviridae

As a family of dsDNA viruses, Herpesviridae are known to infect vertebrates, including humans, and cause progression of various contagious diseases, such as orofacial herpes (HSV1), genital herpes (HSV2), chickenpox and shingles (VZV), opportunistic infections (CMV), Kaposi’s sarcoma (KSHV) and mononucleosis (EBV) [1]. This study compared human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) DNA copy counts in periodontitis sites and in whole saliva, and evaluated the potential of periodontal therapy to reduce the salivary level of the two viruses. An N-terminal BPLF1 fragment (a BPLF1 construct containing the first 246 amino acids [BPLF1 1-246]) associated with PCNA and attenuated its ubiquitination in response to fork-stalling agents UV and hydroxyurea in cultured cells. gadā atklāja Maikls Epšteins, Ivonna Barra un Berts Ahongs Ugandas iedzīvotājam, kas slimoja ar Berkita limfomu. Organtransplantationen, Hautveränderungen). La s�roconversion a lieu le plus souvent dans la petite enfance et est alors asymptomatique. Ubiquitination can be reversed by several families of enzymes collectively designated deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) (1, 15).

The purpose of this case report is to increase the awareness of health care professionals about EBV meningoencephalitis as an under-diagnosed disease, and emphasize that excellent outcome can be achieved by early treatment. Recently, we reported the identification of a novel viral ubiquitin-specific protease (USP), UL36USP, encoded by the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genome (9). At present it is not clear whether this is intrinsically related to the micro-organism itself or merely an indication of the patients deteriorating physical condition leading to viral reactivation. This activity was detected through the use of mechanism-based, active-site-directed probes and confirmed by expression in Escherichia coli of a corresponding fragment that cleaves ubiquitin-based substrates. UL36USP activity peaks at late stages of viral replication and appears to require proteolytic processing from full-length UL36 (9). The N-terminal UL36 fragment is well conserved in alphaherpesviruses, and a low homology to corresponding genes of the betaherpesvirus and gammaherpesvirus subfamilies was apparent in sequence alignments, but with strict conservation of the proposed catalytic residues. DUB activity may therefore be well conserved across the herpesvirus family and, if this is proven to be correct, would suggest an important function for this type of activity.

Pleural effusions (PEs) are frequently encountered specimens in cytopathology. We chose UL36 homologues encoded by mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV, M48) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, BPLF1) as representatives of the beta- and gammaherpesvirus subfamilies, respectively. In order to assess the degree of homology between UL36 from HSV-1 and its MCMV and EBV counterparts, a sequence alignment was generated, covering the first 336 aa (the numbering refers to HSV-1) of UL36 (Fig. 1). Overall, the homology to HSV-1 is rather low, with only 10% and 15% sequence identity for MCMV and EBV, respectively. Nevertheless, the putative catalytic triad Cys-His-Asp is strictly conserved, along with a putative oxyanion hole-forming Gln residue (Fig. EBV latency usually progresses through three programs, with protein production decreasing from full sets of EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs) and latent membrane proteins to just EBNA1.

The conserved Cys65 is the active-site cysteine in HSV-1 UL36USP (9). De leeftijd van de patiënt is van invloed op de symptomatologie. In support of this notion, a secondary structure prediction (11) shows a high degree of structural similarity despite limited sequence identity, suggesting that all members may adopt a similar tertiary structure (Fig. Do not strain while having a bowel movement. This syndrome peaks at day 14 p.i. In sporadic EBV-HLH cases, EBV infection into B cells is delayed but occurs during every case of cured EBV-HLH [17]. The corresponding DNA fragments, specifying aa 1 to 205 of EBV (EBV205) and aa 1 to 285 of MCMV (MCMV285), were PCR-cloned into pET28 according to standard procedures, using MCMV strain Smith and EBV B958 type 1 DNA as templates.

Following expression in E. coli BL21-DE3, the fragments, equipped with an N-terminal His tag, were purified, using a Ni-NTA resin (QIAGEN), and subsequently subjected to gel filtration (S75 HiLoad; Amersham Pharmacia Biotech) in 50 mM Tris, 50 mM KCl, 50 mM NaCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, and 10% (vol/vol) glycerol (pH 7.5) to achieve apparent homogeneity. To examine whether the purified constructs indeed display DUB activity, we used hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Ub-vinylmethyl ester (HAUbVME), a probe that acts as a suicide inhibitor for DUBs by forming a thioether bond with the active-site cysteine (3, 12). Reactions were performed using final concentrations of 1 μM enzyme (EBV205 or MCMV285) in the absence and presence of 2 μM HAUbVME in reaction buffer (50 mM Tris, 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM dithiothreitol pH 7.5) for 30 min at 37°C. Following incubation, samples were boiled in reducing sample buffer and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Please look at the Article section of my website to see research on EBV and all of the aforementioned disorders. 2 A, upper panel).

In this approach, both acute infection and its convalescence were considered, allowing the study of variant dynamics between body compartments in the replicative state. It is our opinion: (i) that NF-kB inhibition may not be an effective therapeutic strategy for neurotrophic viral infections because NF-kB is a ubiquitous transcription factor with large potential for off-target effects; and (ii) that virally-induced miRNA-146a excess could be effectively neutralized using perfectly complementary locked nucleic acid-stabilized anti-miRNA-146a oligonucleotides, and thereby act as an anti-viral agent for a wide variety of DNA- and RNA-virus-induced disease (Lukiw, 2013; Maguire et al., 2014). Are the proteins under investigation indeed cysteine proteases? Pretreatment of EBV205 or MCMV285 with 10 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) for 10 min completely blocked labeling with the probe (Fig. Recent advances in proteomics have enabled the discovery of potential kinase substrates in vitro and in vivo [6,33–35]. Groups 3, 4, and 5 received 36×103, 72×103, and 144×103 copies of EBV DNA respectively. 2 A).
A Deubiquitinating Activity Is Conserved in the Large Tegument Protein of the Herpesviridae

In the case of MCMV, we also constructed a longer variant that terminates at position 575 (MCMV575). Disulphide bridges in IL-8 has been marked with arrows and numbered. 2B). A functionally active BPLF1 fragment has recently been shown to block degradation of cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins by removal of ubiquitin from substrates targeted to the proteasome (15). Visbiežāk slimība izpaužas ar drebuļiem, temperatūru 39-40°C un izteiktu nespēku. Taken together with the established specificity of the electrophilic derivatives of Ub, we conclude that both the MCMV- and EBV-derived fragments are Ub-specific cysteine proteases. We next tested the ability of the enzymes to cleave Ub C-terminal 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (Ub-AMC; Boston Biochem) (5).

Ub-AMC hydrolysis assays were performed in reaction buffer supplemented with bovine serum albumin (50 μg/ml) by incubating the enzymes (100 pM) with a 1,000-fold excess of Ub-AMC (100 nM). EBV205, MCMV285, and MCMV575 efficiently hydrolyzed Ub-AMC, as had been shown for UL36USP (9). In accordance with HAUbVME labeling experiments, Ub-AMC hydrolysis was sensitive to NEM and was not observed for the active-site mutants, corroborating the identity of the proposed catalytic cysteine residue (Fig. 3 and data not shown). While a minimal DUB domain extending little beyond the active-site residues is active, we sought to determine whether the shorter constructs are also sufficient to confer substrate specificity. To address this issue, we tested the potential of several inhibitors to block DUB activity in Ub-AMC hydrolysis assays. Enzymes were preincubated for 1 h with a 100-fold molar excess of electrophilic derivatives of Ub, SUMO, Nedd8, and ISG15, all carrying a VME moiety as the electrophile at their C terminus (8).

While UbVME completely inhibited hydrolytic activity, none of the Ub-related inhibitors impaired DUB activity (Fig. 3). We conclude that a domain consisting of little more than 200 aa, as exemplified by EBV205, mediates both catalytic activity and specificity towards Ub. In summary, we have demonstrated that a DUB activity previously identified in HSV-1 is conserved across all subfamilies of the Herpesviridae. Unexpectedly, a comparatively small structurally conserved module of ∼200 aa is sufficient to confer both hydrolytic activity and Ub specificity. Sequence elements adjacent to the 200-aa core domain may be required to confer additional specificity for ubiquitinated substrates in vivo or to mediate other interactions, for example, those required for subcellular localization. It will be necessary to raise antibodies against the N-terminal domain of these tegument proteins to establish their occurrence in virus-infected cells, to explore precursor-product relationships, and to relate these parameters to the deubiquitinating activity associated with them.

PCR amplification of the whole repeat region gave an ∼1.8-kb band (Fig. Key catalytic residues and the secondary structure of a ubiquitin-specific protease are conserved in three herpesvirus subfamilies. De serologische criteria voor een primaire EBV-infectie zijn: • IgM tegen VCA aanwezig; én • IgG tegen VCA hoog of stijgend; én • antistoffen tegen EBNA laag of afwezig. For clarity, only the N-terminal portion of UL36 is shown. Identical residues are white on a black background, and conserved residues are boxed. Putative active-site residues are marked by vertical arrows. The predicted secondary structure is depicted in alignment with the primary sequence.

Symbols: cylinder, helix; horizontal arrow, strand; line, coil. MCMV and EBV encode cysteine proteases that are targeted by a ubiquitin-derived probe. (A) Labeling of MCMV and EBV protease/tegument protein domains by HAUbVME. EBV205, EBV205 C61A, and MCMV285 were incubated with a twofold molar excess of HAUbVME in the absence or presence of NEM and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Silver stain was used for the upper panel. Anti-HA antibody directed against the probe was used for the immunoblot in the lower panel. Positions of the unmodified enzymes and the covalent HAUb adducts are indicated by arrowheads on the right.

(B) Labeling of MCMV575 and its active-site mutant as for panel A, visualized by immunoblots using anti-His (upper panel) and anti-HA (lower panel) antibodies. This variant was detected in 7/15 (46.7%) of the cases, followed by Med− in 4 cases (26.7%) and China 2 in 2 cases (13.3%). EBV and MCMV protease/tegument protein domains used for Ub-AMC hydrolysis are indicated on the right. Enzymes were either untreated or preincubated with a 100-fold molar excess of specific inhibitors (indicated on top) for 1 h at RT prior to the addition of Ub-AMC. The rate of Ub-AMC hydrolysis by the respective untreated construct was set to 100%. In the current MS analysis, increased phosphorylation at ATM S2996 was detected (Figs 2A and S3). C.S.

is supported by a EMBO long-term fellowship (ALTF 187-2005); G.A.K. is supported by a NIH postdoctoral fellowship (GM072352-02); and L.M.K is supported by a NIH training grant (T32 AI07638). ↵*Corresponding author. Present address: Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142. Mutation of the active site cysteine (C61) in the backbone of BPLF1 1-246 (BPLF1 C61S) results in loss of deubiquitinating activity (54). Pretvīrusu preparāti (Aciklovirs, Ganciklovirs) slimības klīnisko gaitu ietekmēt nespēj, tie ir dārgi, un tāpēc šos preparātus nelieto imūnkompetentam (iepriekš veselam) cilvēkam, lai arī vīrusa izdalīšanās no rīkles gala laiku saīsina. E-mail: ploegh{at}wi.mit.edu.

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