Conference 21 – 2014    Case: 01       20150415

Conference 21 - 2014    Case: 01       20150415

Canine herpesvirus is a fatal, viral infection of puppies worldwide. Historically, most of the infectious diseases characterized in snakes were reported to have a bacterial origin. To compare the effects of T-2 toxin against a known immunosuppressive drug, cyclophosphamide was injected intraperitoneally at 150 mg/kg, 24 hours after treatment with HSV-1, into mice fed the control diet. Multifocally, there is occasional capillary endothelial hypertrophy. The next day, several were found dead and 20 others were sick. Multifocally, vessels within the affected gray and white matter and leptomeninges are mildly congested, lined by reactive endothelium and cuffed by many lymphocytes and plasma cells and fewer macrophages. There were small numbers of petechiae on the endocardium of the heart.

The clinical course and character of the lesion is suggestive of the necrotizing meningoencephalitis recently described in Maltese dogs. The puppy was vaccinated with Durammune-5, a combination vaccine against canine distemper, canine adenovirus 2, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine parvovirus at approximately 1 pm. Deaths due to CHV infection usually occur in puppies 1-3 wk old, occasionally in puppies up to 1 mo old, and rarely in pups as old as 6 mo. To date, there has been no specific treatment recommendation for ophidian herpes virus infections, although acyclovir may be used to suppress infections. The infrequent isolation of virus from liver and brain was consistent with the lack of intranuclear inclusion bodies and a more marked inflammatory response. Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, et al. Multifocally within the grey and white matter, low numbers of lymphocytes and fewer plasma cells expand Virchow-Robin space.
Conference 21 - 2014    Case: 01       20150415

Inflammatory Diseases of the Central Nervous System. The liver contains numerous foci of centrilobular to midzonal necrosis with occasional extension of necrosis from one centrilobular area to another (bridging necrosis). The etiology of necrotizing meningoencephalitis is unknown. Neighboring endothelial cells are enlarged (reactive). Most often there is no inflammatory reaction. Affected snakes may have nasal discharge and purulent hemorrhagic discharge from the glottis. Similar but less extensive lesions are observed in meninges and cerebral cortex.

In: Summer BA, Cumming JF, de Lahunta A, eds. Thymus (hemorrhage and lymphocytolysis), spleen, Peyers patches and lymph nodes (massive lymphoid and red pulp necrosis with very few inclusions), kidney (inclusions in glomeruli and vascular endothelial cells), heart (rare endothelial inclusions). 2007;44(6):943-948. Research monoclonal antibodies against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) and canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV -2) were used to further define the type of CAV present in the liver. Multiple reddish-gray pinpoint foci were present in all lung lobes. Bacterial culture revealed heavy growth of Escherichia coli and moderate growth of Proteus sp. Infected bitches develop antibodies, and litters subsequent to the first infected litter receive maternal antibodies in the colostrum.

Inclusion body disease (IBD) can be a devastating disease in snake collections. Fecal flotation revealed the presence of Isospora sp. St. However, histologic lesions of multifocal hepatic necrosis, combined with striking intranuclear inclusions in hepatocytes and vascular endothelial cells in the liver and brain suggest etiology consistent with canine adenovirus type 1 (infectious canine hepatitis/CAV-1). Liver: Degeneration and necrosis, centrilobular to midzonal, multifocal to coalescing, severe, with numerous hepatocyte and endothelial intranuclear viral inclusions. Dogs that demonstrate a partial neutralizing antibody response can develop chronic hepatitis.

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