Conjunctivitis, Neonatal

Conjunctivitis, Neonatal

Conjunctivitis in a newborn may be caused by a blocked tear duct, irritation produced by the antibiotic eyedrops given at birth, or infection. Red eye is very common in children and a specific diagnosis can often be difficult as signs and symptoms are similar for many different etiologies. The biggest risk factor for developing newborn conjunctivitis is a maternal infection or sexually transmitted disease (STD) at the time of delivery. The mother may not have any symptoms during delivery, but may still be able to transmit the infection. If you are pregnant, it is important to discuss any STDs that you have or had in the past. # Uncommon, potential for serious consequences – severe keratitis and endophthalmitis. This is caused by bacteria called N.

The doctor will look at your baby’s eyes to check for anything that may be irritating the eye, and to see if any damage has occurred. The doctor may also want to take a sample of any discharge to determine what type of bacteria or virus is causing the infection. The drainage can be thick pus-like (purulent). The newborn obtains this type of conjunctivitis by the passage through the birth canal from an infected mother. The newborn obtains this type of conjunctivitis by the passage through the birth canal from an infected mother. Treatment often includes antibiotics through an intravenous (IV) catheter. Inclusion conjunctivitis.

Inclusion conjunctivitis. Treatment usually will include oral antibiotics. Inclusion conjunctivitis is caused by an infection with chlamydia trachomatis. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. A conjunctival membrane may be present. Treatment usually will include antibiotic drops or ointments to the eye, warm compresses to the eye, and proper hygiene when touching the infected eyes. Other bacterial causes.
Conjunctivitis, Neonatal

Cultures of the eye drainage are usually not required, but may be done to help confirm the cause of the infection. Treatment usually will include antibiotic drops or ointments to the eye, warm compresses to the eye, and proper hygiene when touching the infected eyes. Herpetic conjunctivitis This type typically occurs within the first 2 weeks after birth. The infection can also spread to other people. Fluid from the eye is still contagious for 24 to 48 hours after starting treatment. Microdendrites or geographic ulcers, rather than typical dendrites as seen in adults, are the most typical signs of herpetic keratitis in newborns. The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history.

The etiology can be chemical or microbial. Although several noninfectious and infectious agents can inflame the conjunctiva, the more common causes are silver nitrate chemical conjunctivitis and chlamydial, gonococcal, staphylococcal, and herpetic infections. Silver nitrate solution In 1881, Crede’s method of instilling a drop of 2% silver nitrate into a newborn’s eyes was a major advance in preventing neonatal conjunctivitis. Silver nitrate is a surface-active chemical, facilitating agglutinate gonococci and inactivating them. Ironically, silver nitrate was later found to be toxic to the conjunctiva, potentially causing a sterile neonatal conjunctivitis. Chlamydia trachomatis This obligate intracellular parasite has been identified as the most common infectious cause of neonatal conjunctivitis. The reservoir of the organism is the maternal cervix or urethra.

Infants who are born to infected mothers are at high risk for developing an infection. Neisseria gonorrhoeae This gram-negative diplococcus is potentially the most dangerous and virulent infectious cause of neonatal conjunctivitis. Gonococci have the ability to penetrate intact epithelial cells and to divide rapidly inside the epithelial cells. Gonorrheal conjunctivitis must be absolutely excluded in every case of neonatal conjunctivitis to avoid serious consequences. Other bacteria The most commonly identified gram-positive organisms include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus viridans, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus, Enterobacter, and Pseudomonas species, also have been implicated. Herpes simplex Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause neonatal keratoconjunctivitis, but it is rare and is associated most often with a generalized herpes simplex infection.

Most infants with such infection acquire the disease during the birth process. Therefore, caesarean delivery usually is considered when active genital disease is recognized at term.

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