Cats, especially kittens, often get upper airway infections. Approximately 90% of all upper airway infections in cats are caused by two common viruses: feline herpesvirus-1 and feline calicivirus. Depending on their cause, upper airway infections can quickly become serious, especially in kittens. Oropharyngeal and conjunctival swabs and blood samples were taken from 16 cats with clinical signs of URTD and 26 clinically healthy cats. Thiry was born on the 4th of April 1957 in Brussels. Morbi ac massa nec augue pulvinar pretium. The activity of nonyl phenyl-w-hydroxy-poly (oxythylene) (NP9) is to act first to attack cell walls as a penetrative agent allowing the combinations of disinfectants to enter the cortex of the cell and destroy it.
Each cat should be vaccinated as soon as possible against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpesvirus (FHV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV) infections. If your cat shows any signs of respiratory illness, such as sneezing, wheezing, or discharge from the eyes or nose (see box), make an appointment with your veterinarian right away. All ages of cats are susceptible to infection although kittens typically are more severely affected. Griffin B, DiGangi BA, Bohling M. Approximately 90% of all upper airway infections in cats are caused by two common viruses: feline herpesvirus-1 and feline calicivirus. Feline herpesvirus is related to the virus that causes cold sores and chickenpox in people; however, people cannot get sick from the feline virus. Upper airway infections in cats can also be caused by fungi or bacteria.
It is common for cats to be “co-infected”—infected with more than one agent (e.g., a virus and a bacterium) at the same time—which can make treatment and recovery longer and more difficult. Signs of upper respiratory disease can also be linked to other serious problems, like allergies, dental disease, cancer, or the presence of a foreign object in the nose or the back of the mouth. Feline upper airway infections are spread the same way as the common cold: a healthy cat comes into contact with an object that has been used by an infected cat—for example, a shared food bowl or toy. Frequently disinfecting shared items can help reduce transmission risk. Feline calicivirus can also be spread when a healthy cat uses the same litterbox as an infected cat. And, just like the common cold, your hands can play a role in spreading these viruses, so if you have or touch a sick cat, wash your hands before touching another cat! Sixteen cats had clinical signs of URTD, including sneezing, coughing, nasal or ocular discharge, stomatitis, gingivitis and the other 26 were healthy and without any clinical signs of URTD.
The study of the cluster of ruminant alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1, the zoonotic potential of hepatitis E virus, the molecular epidemiology of the foodborne noroviruses, sapoviruses and kobuviruses and the genetic variation of feline calicivirus are also part of his research activities. Diagnosing the exact cause of an upper airway infection can be difficult; however, your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical examination and may perform additional tests such as blood tests and radiography (obtaining x-rays). Dilute 1:50 for high risk or soiled areas. Also, if your cat’s illness lasts an unusually long time or is accompanied by unusual pain, facial deformity, significant weight loss, or some other odd sign, additional diagnostic tests may be needed to rule out other problems. As in people, very few drugs can control viral infections, so treatment typically consists mostly of keeping your cat warm, comfortable, and eating and drinking properly. Viralys® is manufactured as a palatable gel. Discharge from the nose and eyes should be gently cleared away if the cat will allow it, and any lesions in the mouth or eyes should be treated.
You may be given a prescription for a broad-spectrum antibiotic to help combat any secondary bacterial infections. Dehydration can be a problem in seriously ill cats, so fluid therapy may be needed in some cases. Cats that are kept indoors are at a lower risk of contracting upper airway diseases. Cats that are allowed outside; have recently been in a shelter, boarding facility, or cattery; or live in a multicat household are at higher risk of contracting these diseases. Kittens, because of their immature immune systems, are also at higher risk. Vaccines are available to help prevent or reduce the severity of the most common infections. Many vaccines may not be 100% effective in preventing a disease, but they do help limit how sick your cat becomes if he or she is infected.
The American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP; http://www.catvets.com) considers feline herpesvirus-1 and feline calicivirus vaccines as “core,” meaning that they should be given to virtually every cat. They are usually given in a single combination vaccine. HerpF (5′-GACGTGGTGAATTATCAGC-3′) and HerpR (5′-CAACTAGATTTCCACCAGGA-3′) amplify a 292 base pair (bp) region in thymidine kinase (TK) gene of FHV-1. The number of boosters depends on the kitten’s age when the first shot is given. Consult your veterinarian about the best vaccination schedule for your individual cat.