[Early diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with normal MRI]. – PubMed

[Early diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with normal MRI]. - PubMed

The infectious units in native and alkalidenatured preparations of DNA of herpes simplex virus were characterized with respect to their sensitivity to Neurospora crassa endonuclease, their sedimentation properties in high-salt, neutral sucrose gradients, and their sensitivity to hydrodynamic shearing forces. The delivery of genes which can modify the host’s response to its own tumour cells has been carried out both by using viral vectors and by non-viral delivery systems. We compared the UL36 gene of tsB7 with that of the parental strain HFEM or strain 17 and identified four amino acid substitutions, 1061D → G, 1453Y → H, 2273Y → H, and 2558T → I. Labeling the viral tegument protein, VP16, with green fluorescent protein allowed viral particles moving inside the axon to be imaged by confocal microscopy. VZV and HSV patients were comparable with respect to age, sex, underlying diseases, immune suppression, and the rates of fever, headache and altered mental status on presentation. In animal experiments, survival was not significantly prolonged by administration of both prodrugs to TOCD/TK-treated animals, while each single gene/prodrug pair resulted in increased survival. We conclude that (i) HSV recruits the squid retrograde transport machinery; (ii) viral tegument and capsid but not envelope are sufficient for this recruitment; and (iii) the giant axon of the squid provides a unique system to dissect the viral components required for transport and to identify the cellular transport mechanisms they recruit.
[Early diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with normal MRI]. - PubMed

The overall mean age was 41.1 years (range, 17–74 years) with 17 patients older than 55 years. CSF study revealed marked pleocytosis. Even then, MRI including Gd-enhanced study was normal while SPECT continued to show hyperaccumulation. In serum-starved cells, growth of the mutant virus at 31° was severely impaired. Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1)1 is a double-stranded DNA virus with a genome of ∼152 kilobase pairs that contains three origins of DNA replication (,1). The recognition system depends on sensing some microbial structures that are reactive with membrane and cytosol pattern recognition receptors [1]. Case 2 was a 61-year-old man with disturbance of consciousness, mental dysfunction, and generalized convulsion.

He was diagnosed as having HSVE by means of CSF pleocytosis, detection of HSV DNA in CSF by polymerase chain reaction, and presence of anti-HSV antibody in the CSF. CT and MRI again revealed no abnormality while SPECT clearly showed hyperaccumulation in the left temporal lobe in an early stage. Hyperaccumulation of lipophilic tracer on SPECT study, especially in the temporal lobes, has been reported in the early stage of HSVE by previous investigators. Unlike MRI or enhanced CT, the increased tracer accumulation in SPECT does not reflect disruption of the blood-brain-barrier or inflammatory edema, but reflects hyperperfusion or some other HSVE related abnormality which is currently unknown. From these observations, we suggest that local hyperperfusion occurs before local inflammation, and that SPECT is the most useful scanning method for early diagnosis of HSVE when this disease is clinically suspected.

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