Bringing home a new kitten is an exciting time for everyone in the household. Immediately on completion of surgery, vaccines that contained inactivated RV and FeLV antigens and either MLV or inactivated FPV, FHV, and FCV antigens were administered. While some of these problems have been traced to contaminated or poorly attenuated batches of vaccine that revert to virulence, others apparently reflect the animal’s genetic predisposition to react adversely upon receiving the single (monovalent) or multiple antigen “combo” (polyvalent) products routinely given to pets. This stimulates the immune system into producing antibodies and activates protective white blood cells. Cats, like humans, are at risk for contracting contagious illnesses. Puppies should be vaccinated at 8 and 10 weeks. Calicivirus is usually carried for a few years at most, but feline Herpes virus remains in the cat’s nervous system for life.
The vaccine against Feline Distemper includes Feline Herpes Virus (also known as Feline Rhinotracheitis), Feline Calicivirus and Feline Panleukopenia. However, if the animal does become exposed to the illness, the vaccine either prevents contracting the condition or reduces the severity of the resulting illness. Diet manipulation can often decrease or even obliterate the need for insulin injections in your diabetic animal! Factors that should be examined include age, medical history, environment and lifestyle. Sections (5 μm thick) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE). FPV is usually rapidly fatal in kittens. Just as in children, following vaccination your cat may experience mild and short-lived reactions (malaise), such as poor appetite, lethargy, and fever that resolve without treatment.
Intranasal vaccines are given as drops up the cat”s nose rather than by injection under the skin. They have the advantage of causing a very rapid immune response to a single dose and can, in emergencies, be used to protect very young kittens, but can cause signs of cat flu in some cats. Which are the most important vaccinations to have? Killed (inactivated) vaccines – these vaccines are prepared using fully virulent organisms that have been killed by chemicals, UV light or radiation. Actually, one should avoid vaccinating animals that are already protected. Kitten vaccination courses usually involve two sets of vaccinations, the first at nine weeks of age, the second at twelve. However, the risk for an allergic reaction is extremely low.
In some cases this is achieved by using genetic engineering techniques. The incidence of this tumor (called an injection site sarcoma) is VERY low (probably 1 in 10,000) but it is an EXTREMELY AGGRESSIVE TUMOR which is quite difficult to treat and will likely result in the death of your cat. In addition to Lake Stevens pet wellness exams, the veterinarians and animal care assistants from Good Neighbor Vet also communicate to you the dangers of contagious and zoonotic diseases, and the importance of heartworm and flea / tick prevention. They usually go away without the need to be treated. Booster vaccination is generally carried out yearly. Panleukopenia vaccines provide long lasting protection, some up to 2 years. Each sequence was aligned with homologous sequences from neuroinvasive herpesviruses retrieved from GenBank with CLUSTAL/W in Bioedit 184.108.40.206 (4), and a phylogenetic tree for the nucleotide sequences was generated with the neighbor-joining distance algorithm and the maximum composite likelihood model with 1,000 bootstrap replicates using MEGA 5.0 (5).
FIV produces a situation similar to HIV, but is not transmissible to humans. It is caused by a parvovirus similar to the Parvovirus seen in dogs. These antibodies can also prevent vaccination from working properly. The amount of colostral antibodies that each kitten receives is variable and so the age at which a kitten can respond to vaccination successfully will also vary. Much of the bone growth occurs in the first 6 months. 3. Thus, using vaccine titer testing as a means to assess vaccine-induced protection will most likely result in the animal avoiding needless and unwise booster vaccinations.
These cats need urgent medical support. If you feel your cat has contracted an infection for which it is vaccinated then let your veterinary surgeon know. Investigation to establish why vaccination has possibly failed can be undertaken. Generally the risks of vaccination are extremely low. Severe reactions being very rare. Many cats experience mild reactions at the site of vaccination where a lump may occur that can be painful. Generalised reactions are sometimes seen, the cat being quiet, lame and often off its food for 24 hours after vaccination.
Occasionally more severe signs occur including vomiting, diarrhoea and profound depression. All samples were screened for the presence of FCoV M gene mRNA using primers previously described (7), with modifications (2RNAmA, TAATRMCATARACGADCCAGCT, nucleotides [nt] 2,6440 to 2,6461; 2RNAmS, GTGCTAGVTTTGTCTTCGGACAMC, nt 60 to 83) (positions referenced to feline infectious peritonitis virus [FIPV] strain 79-1179). Protection from the vaccine is likely short-lived and incomplete. Disease is caused by FHV-1 or FCV and is commonly termed ”cat flu”. It is a common disease in unvaccinated cats and can cause long-term problems, including chronic and severe gum problems. Vaccination is required regularly as immunity is not long lived. Cats at high risk may need to be vaccinated twice yearly to provide better protection.
This tends to be a particular problem in colony cats. Scott FW, Geissinger CM. Infection in colonies of cats can last for long periods as protection against reinfection is relatively short lived. Vaccination can help to prevent infection becoming established in a colony and can be used in conjunction with treatment where infection is already present. Whilst the majority of cats are able to combat this infection a significant proportion (about 30%) will become persistently infected by the virus. The vast majority of persistently infected cats will die from tumours or indirectly due to the immunosuppression caused by the virus. Current vaccines provide a good level of protection and do not interfere with routine testing for the virus in breeding colonies.
Because the virus tends to take many months before it causes disease infected cats can appear completely normal. For this reason your veterinary surgeon may suggest that your cat should have a blood test to make sure it is not infected before vaccination. Despite vaccination a few cats will still become infected with the virus.