EENT (Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat) flashcards

EENT (Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat) flashcards

N2 – The α-herpes virus (pseudorabies, PRV) was used to observe central nervous system (CNS) pathways associated with the vestibulocerebellar system. Viruses do not divide as a means of propagation; they exist in two separate phases. Even more important, keep your teeth clean. Weird though that I’ve been diagnosed with UC & not CD. 329(3):168-71. [Medline]. Bacterial infections are a most common cause out of isolated uvulitis.

Computed tomography (CT) scans of the orbit and sinuses should be obtained. So clearly whatever bug I caught was of a particularly strong variety because by all accounts I should be healthy as a horse. How to Tell if You Have AsthmaHome Remedies for Tonsillitis Treatment (Sore Throat Treatment)If tonsils were the reason for your bad eath and you got rid of it after rid of bad eath after tonsillectomy? report presentation data of 56 children with peritonsillar abscesses. Candidiasis can cause difficulties with swallowing and taste. Hemangiomas involving oral cavity are relatively rare, with a prevalence of 8 in one thousand males and 4 in one thousand females.1  Cavernous hemangioma affecting the uvula is an extremely rare event. Both the bacteria and your body’s response to this infection start to break down the bone and the tissue that hold the teeth in place.

Nevertheless, both sorts of herpes could be transmitted to the genital and mouth areas. Oral ulcers can occur as well. Measles can also present with upper respiratory symptoms, but subsequently the patient develops Koplik spots in the mouth and a rash that starts at the head and then spreads downward across the body. One to three days after cerebellar infection discrete cell groups were labeled and appropriate laterality within crossed projections was preserved. Noninfectious hepatitis can result from the prolonged use of medications prescribed for chronic illnesses and illicit drug and alcohol abuse. Conductive hearing loss results from lesions involving the external or middle ear. Sensorineural hearing loss results from lesions of the cochlea, auditory division, or eighth cranial nerve.

2009 Jun 18. 35(3):257-63. Study Flashcards On *Part II ALL SAQs in Cram.com. A radiograph will not offer any additional information. Since the symptoms have been occurring for over a week, it is important to determine if the infection is caused by group A streptococcus so it can be treated promptly to avoid sequelae of this type of infection. Although all the above can occur with a peritonsillar abscess, displacement of the uvula should alert the clinician that the signs are suggestive of this diagnosis and not a simple pharyngitis. Pseudomembranous (thrush) candidiasis presents as white fungal plaques along the oral surfaces of the mouth that can easily be wiped off.

Erythematous (atrophic) candidiasis presents as a reddish lesion. Demonstration of human herpesvirus-8 by in situ hybridization (ISH) and/or immunehistochemical stains are helpful to confirm the diagnosis.13-15 Pyogenic granuloma is a subtype of capillary hemangioma, which is commonly found in gingiva, lips, face and tongue. Smoking makes problems with your mouth worse. A normal eardrum is pinkish gray. Deposition of hyaline material within the layers of the eardrum is characteristic of tympanosclerosis. Serous effusions usually present with amber fluid behind the eardrum. In the case of mastoiditis, a CT scan of the temporal bones should be ordered to determine the extent of the disease.

The long-term replacement of the hepatocytes with connective tissue is called cirrhosis. Symptoms of otitis media should begin to improve within 72 hours of starting antibiotic therapy. If there is no improvement, second-line therapy with amoxicillin/clavulanate should be started. Medicine (Baltimore). 1998 Feb. ??????] [??????] (A) *abbreviation????(? Patients with tonsillitis can have neck pain, sore throat, and tonsillar enlargement, but no deviation of the uvula should occur.

Although mononucleosis presents similarly as well, once again there should not be deviation of the uvula. In the case of herpetic gingivostomatitis, the child will complain of painful lesions in the mouth along with associated, malaise, headache, fever, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Symptoms are usually self-limited. Although one can have multiple aphthous ulcers, this not a common presentation of them and aphthous ulcers are not associated with the above symptoms. (C) CD34 immunohistochemical stain highlights the flat endothelial cells lining the vascular spaces. You can buy these picks at drug stores or grocery stores. Adding cool compresses to the treatment and observing the progression of the cellulitic spread can be harmful.

Herpetic gingivostomatitis, usually caused by herpes simplex virus-1, presents with multiple small vesicles that turn into shallow ulcers throughout the oral mucosa. Thick white patches are usually associated with thrush. Kaposi’s sarcoma can present with deep purple-colored lesions. This medication can also increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin if taken concurrently. If a group A beta-streptococcal infection is left untreated, serious complications can occur including, but not limited to, rheumatic fever. There is a 10-day window in which the patient can be treated to avoid complications. Mason WR Jr, Adams EK.

Arch Dis Child. Viral conjunctivitis is usually not associated with purulent discharge. Dacryoadenitis is swelling of the lacrimal duct and blepharitis presents with inflammation around the area of the eyelashes. In patients with otitis externa and a severely swollen canal, an otowick can be placed to help decrease the inflammation. The patient can continue using the eardrops with the otowick in the ear. If the antibiotic is continued without the otowick in place, the drops will not enter the canal. Explanation: Herpetic gingivostomatitis, usually caused by herpes simplex virus 1, presents with multiple small vesicles that turn into shallow ulcers throughout the oral mucosa.
EENT (Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat) flashcards

Differential Diagnosis in Surgical Pathology. Some diseases and medicines are associated with a specific breath odor. Small red spots represent petechiae. Explanation: GABS typically presents with large red tonsils with tender cervical adenopathy. Gray tonsillar exudates are seen in cases of diphtheria. Trismus and tonsillar asymmetry are seen with peritonsillar abscesses. An initial form, primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, occurs after infection with the virus, most often in children, and is characterized by painful oral ulcerations, fever, and flu-like symptoms.

In sensorineural hearing loss, sound is heard in the good ear. With conductive hearing loss such as cerumen impaction, BC will be greater than AC when performing the Rinne test. [Medline]. Explanation: A cherry red spot is typically seen on patients with central retinal artery occlusion. Cotton wool spots are found on patients with central retinal vein occlusions and diabetic retinopathy. Drusen are seen in macular degeneration. Explanation: Patients with angle-closure glaucoma present with a red, painful eye and the pupil is usually fixed in a mid-dilated position with the central cornea appearing cloudy.

Nausea and vomiting are common. Macular degeneration presents with painless progressive central vision loss. Retinal detachment presents with decreased acuity, photophobia, and floaters. Arribas-Garcia I, Dominguez MF, Alcala-Galiano A, Garcia AF, Valls JC, De Rasche EN. Explanation: Although all the above can occur with a peritonsillar abscess, displacement of the uvula should alert the clinician that the signs are suggestive of this diagnosis and not a simple pharyngitis. Explanation: Crusting and oily material around the eyelids are the common physical findings in a patient with seborrheic blepharitis. Erythema and swelling around the eyelids are seen with bacterial blepharitis.

Redness, itching, and a foreign-body sensation in the eye are seen in viral conjunctivitis. A nontender, nonerythematous, and nonfluctuant nodule on eyelid is a chalazion. CMV shares the characteristic of latency seen in other members of the herpes virus family and can be reactivated when conditions such as immunosuppression occur. It is usually painful and can cause the lids of the eye to swell. Normally it presents as a small nodule on the upper or lower eyelid. 52(4):449-52. The eye is usually tearing.

Blepharitis presents with swelling, itchiness, or crusting of the eyelids. Esotropia refers to the eyes turning inward. Explanation: Ménière’s disease consists of the following symptoms: recurrent clusters of severe episodic vertigo lasting at least 20 minutes, low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss that may fluctuate, tinnitus that is usually low tone and “blowing” in quality, and a sensation of aural pressure. Although positional vertigo may also present similarly, usually the patient states that the symptoms began after a sudden head movement. Acoustic neuromas are usually slow growing and produce vague symptoms of disequilibrium. Explanation: All of these symptoms are consistent with parotitis. Contemp Clin Dent.

A patient with a retropharyngeal abscess will usually present with a sore throat, fever, difficulty swallowing, pharyngeal erythema, and even drooling. Explanation: This is the classic presentation of a peritonsillar abscess. Patients with tonsillitis can have neck pain, sore throat, and tonsillar enlargement, but no deviation of the uvula should occur. Mononucleosis also presents similarly, but there should not be deviation of the uvula on the examination. Explanation: A pterygium is a yellowish elevation of tissue extending from the inner canthus to the cornea, associated with irritation and tearing. There are more than 120 different genotypes that comprise the HPV family [52]. Corneal ulcers are usually over the cornea and are associated with an infectious process.

Rust rings are residual marks left after the removal of an embedded foreign body. 2013 Jan. Penicillin is still the treatment of choice for group A streptococcus, and amoxicillin is too broad spectrum. A radiograph will not offer any additional information. Because the symptoms have been already occurring for more than a week, it is important to determine if the infection is caused by group A streptococcus so it can be treated promptly to avoid sequelae of this type of infection. Explanation: When a large section of the globe is fractured, patients may have enophthalmos or a sunken globe. Appropriate consult is the first line of care.

Patching the eye may help with diplopia, but discharging the patient can be dangerous. Intravenous antibiotics are not indicated at this time. The diagnostic test of choice for a blowout fracture is a computed tomography (CT) scan. Explanation: Posterior bleeds are uncommon but require emergency evaluation and treatment. They usually require posterior packing and a consult with an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist. You should also get a complete blood count, type, and cross and bleeding time to rule out any coagulopathies. Explanation: Patients with mononucleosis who receive ampicillin or a moxicillin can potentially break out in a rash after starting the medication.

It is almost diagnostic when this occurs. The measles virus is one of several members of the RNA paramyxovirus group. Explanation: Water-view radiographs can reveal opacification, air-fluid levels, or an abnormally thick mucosa but have limited utility and generally are not recommended. Noncontrast CT studies provide a far better yield than do plain radiographs and are used in cases of complicated sinusitis or when the patient is not responding to standard treatment. Ultrasounds of the sinuses are not very helpful. MRI scans are useful if there are intracranial complications. Explanation: Children who are positive for group A beta hemolytic streptococcus should be treated with penicillin VK 125 to 250 mg in four divided doses for 10 days.

If the patient is allergic to penicillin, then treat with erythromycin. Explanation: White lesions that do not rub off in the mouth are commonly referred to as “leukoplakia.” Usually these lesions are benign but 2% to 6% undergo malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma.

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