In this Journal feature, information about a real patient is presented in stages (boldface type) to an expert clinician, who responds to the information, sharing his or her reasoning with the reader (regular type). If the tonsils are primarily affected, it is called tonsillitis. If the throat is primarily affected, it is called pharyngitis. Treatment with acyclovir was ineffective, but gancyclovir therapy caused spectacular clinical improvement and healing of erosions. This would be called pharyngotonsillitis. Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx, which frequently results in hoarseness or loss of the voice. The review of systems revealed no fever, chills, rhinorrhea, ear pain, headache, muscle ache, abdominal pain or rash.
The symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis may resemble other medical conditions or problems. VI 34 Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 / HTLV-I/ Adult T-Cell Lymphoma Virus Type 1 Has been seriously implicated in several kinds of diseases, including HTLV-I-associated myelopathy and Strongyloides stercoralis, and as a virus cancer link for leukaemia. VI 38 Parainfluenza Virus 1 Parainfluenza viruses are the second most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in younger children, including croup. This is in accordance with European randomized clinical trials and the Cochrane review. It is mentioned that the… Also upper respiratory tract illness (a cold and sore throat). VI 40 Parainfluenza Virus 3 Parainfluenza viruses are the second most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in younger children, including croup.
Also upper respiratory tract illness (a cold and sore throat).This strain also associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia. VI 41 Parainfluenza Virus 4 Parainfluenza viruses are the second most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in younger children, including croup. For such conditions the ICD-10-CM has a coding convention that requires the underlying condition be sequenced first followed by the manifestation. VI 43 Rotavirus The most common cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children. Your doctor will decide on the treatment plan based on the findings. VI 45 Swine Flu Virus / Swine Influenza Virus / H1N1 Virus Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human flu. VI 46 West Nile Virus Main route of human infection is through the bite of an infected mosquito.
Pharyngitis often develops when constantly difficult nasal breathing. Regular smokers may experience a sore throat after a heavy bout of smoking or as a result of an infection which smokers are more prone to developing. VI 47 BK Virus Many people who are infected with this virus are asymptomatic. If symptoms do appear, they tend to be mild: respiratory infection or fever. Past infection with the BK virus is widespread, but significant consequences of infection are uncommon, with the exception of the immune-compromised and the immunosuppressed. VI 48 California Encephalitis Virus Causes encephalitis in humans. Cardiac examination revealed a regular rate and rhythm, with no murmurs.
Seizures occur in 50% of children. Focal neurologic signs such as irregular and abnormal reflexes develop in 20% of children. 10% of patients develop coma. The total duration of illness rarely exceeds 10–14 days. Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) is the most common and serious bacterium causing pediatric pharyngitis. Patient Care 1. In adults, infection is asymptomatic.
VI 49 Colorado Tick Fever Virus /CTFV Initial symptoms include fever, chills, headaches, pain behind the eyes, light sensitivity, muscle pain, generalized malaise, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, as well as a flat or pimply rash. During the second phase a high fever can return with an increase in symptoms. Found almost exclusively in the western United States and Canada, mostly in high mountain areas such as Colorado and Idaho. VI 51 Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus /EEE/ Triple E Present in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean. Symptoms include high fever, muscle pain, altered mental status, headache, meningeal irritation, photophobia, and seizures, which occur three to 10 days after the bite of an infected mosquito. VI 52 Everglades Virus The virus circulates among rodents and vector mosquitoes and sometimes infects humans, causing a febrile illness with occasional neurological manifestations. Most clinical cases of infection occur in and around the city of Miami.
VI 53 Hantavirus Infection occurs through urine, saliva or contact with rodent waste products. May cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), but may be asymptomatic with no apparent health effects. VI 54 Human Foamy Virus Has been isolated from patients with various neoplastic and degenerative diseases such as myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, thyroiditis de Quervain, and Graves’ disease but the role of the virus is unclear. Recent studies indicate that it is not pathogenic in humans. VI 55 Human Herpes Virus 6 Cause of the common childhood illness exanthem subitum (also known as roseola infantum or sixth disease). Found in some patients with neuro-inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Due to the very small size of aerosol particles fusafungine able to penetrate into the most inaccessible respiratory tract and to provide there own therapeutic effect.
Healthy individuals can be infected with the virus and show no signs or symptoms, due to the immune system’s ability to keep the infection in check. Infection is of particular concern to the immunosuppressed. Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, AIDS patients and organ transplant patients are all at a high risk of showing signs of infection. VI 57 JC Virus / John Cunningham Virus Initial site of infection may be the tonsils, or possibly the gastrointestinal tract. Then remains latent in the gastrointestinal tract and can also infect the tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys, where it continues to reproduce, shedding virus particles in the urine. The negative enzyme immunoassay 6 weeks after symptom onset makes HIV infection less likely. It is found in high concentrations in urban sewage worldwide, leading some researchers to suspect contaminated water as a typical route of infection.
Causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and other diseases only in cases of immunodeficiency. VI 60 Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) Spread by the common house mouse. During the initial phase, lasting up to a week, common symptoms include fever, lack of appetite, headache, muscle aches, malaise, nausea, and/or vomiting. In adults, GERD symptoms may include heartburn, particularly at night, belching, nausea and vomiting, and regurgitation of food with some hoarseness, sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, and occasionally cough or wheezing. Second phase starts several days after recovery, and consists of symptoms of meningitis or encephalitis. Congenital infection may lead to malformations such as intracranial calcifications, hydrocephalus, microcephaly or macrocephaly, mental retardation, and seizure. VI 61 Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus Endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.
Causal agent of Murray Valley encephalitis (previously known as Australian encephalitis); in humans can cause permanent neurological disease or death. VI 64 Ross River Virus Causes an influenza-like illness and polyarthritis. The virus is endemic to Australia, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Samoa, the Cook Is lands, New Caledonia and several other islands in the South Pacific. VI 65 Simian Virus 40 Found in both monkeys and humans. Has the potential to cause tumors, but most often persists as a latent infection. Polio vaccine contaminated with it in 1960’s.