Our address is 110 E. Flow chart of experiments performed to study the effect of the double ORF56-57 deletion on CyHV-3 pathogenesis. As this is a temperature dependent programme the remainder of the inspections will be completed during early spring and then during the autumn programme. It is nonetheless, a serious viral disease of fish, and is notifiable in the United Kingdom. p. Ponds should have a large shaded area where fish can get away from the sun and the water can be protected from excess heat in the summer months. The safety and efficacy of this strain were studied using an in vivo bioluminescent imaging system (IVIS), qPCR, and histopathological examination, which demonstrated that it enters fish via skin infection similar to the wild type strain.
However, this caused problems in submitting the data to meet submission deadlines. This year the FHI has asked farmers to provide production data using a postal survey. Electron micrographs of purified pelleted CNGV sections, together with viral sensitivities to ether and Triton X-100, suggested that it is an enveloped virus. In addition, a rapid commercial immuno-diagnosis kit for KHV is available and requires no specialized equipment. The FHI is responsible for preventing the introduction and spread of serious diseases in fish, shellfish and crustacea. The FHI iPAD was launched in March and replaced paper based data collection. In addition to improving the speed and accuracy of data collection, it is estimated that it will remove the need to use some 21,000 pieces of paper.
Mike Gubbins, the lead on shellfish health in the FHI, attended the annual European Union National Reference Laboratories meeting for molluscan diseases. In all three cases an immediate reduction in the size of the target population was observed and, critically, without widespread jumping to non-target hosts. There were fewer reports of disease outbreaks on farms in the early months of 2016 as compared with previous years. Also low water temperatures may have contributed to the fact that there were only a few reports of disease outbreaks on managed fisheries. The FHI investigated only 6 mortality events, with no evidence found for the presence of listed diseases. The emergence of skin diseases in trout production has had a detrimental impact on the economic viability of the sector, primarily through increased rejections at processing. The FHI supported a study by Cefas Epidemiologists on the factors influencing the occurrence of puffy skin on fish farms in England and Wales through the completion of a questionnaire during farm inspections.
Once infected, fish may also shed the virus into a pond, even in the absence of symptoms. Sea lice infestations continue to be a major problem in Atlantic salmon production. Constraints on chemical treatments have resulted in a renewed interest in the use of cleaner fish to manage sea lice populations. A number of farms are now producing lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus) from wild caught broodstock and from imported ova for use on salmon farms. Following an outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in lumpsucker in a fish farm in Iceland, the FHI has negotiated bilateral agreements with the Icelandic and Norwegian authorities. Therefore now lumpsucker ova consignments require health attestations for this disease. This temporary measure is in place in advance of changes to European Union health certification requirements.
Work is progressing on the genetics of koi herpesvirus (KHV) disease, and in particular the relationship between clustered disease outbreaks. Initial findings indicate that outbreaks within clusters are a result of genetically distinct viruses indicating separate introductions of disease, rather than spread from nearby water bodies. Further studies have taken place on the occurrence of haplosporidian parasites and their relationship to mortality events in shellfish. Haplosporidium nelsoni – previously known as MSX (multinucleated unknown) – has been found in low prevalence in populations of farmed Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) experiencing mortalities. Implementation of a contingency plan in the face of a major disease outbreak requires substantial financial, equipment and human resources over and above those required for non-emergency (routine) operations. A cheaper, more convenient solution is desirable. This Yamato Bloodline Kohaku was purchased at our Sakai Seminar in may of this year at 11 inches.
Work is continuing to establish the cause of the mortalities in Pacific oysters. Red seabream (Pagrus major ) Since ancient times, red sea bream has been prized as the ‘king of fish’ in Japan, because of its elegant appearance and colour as well as its superior taste. This was specifically in relation to a site in a Scottish sea loch where a long term eradication programme for Bonamia ostrea is in place. Intelligence has been received by a number of government agencies regarding illegal activities connected with trade in live European eel elvers. Your RK2 Systems, Inc. This is to protect the species from over exploitation. The fishery is artisanal and is highly seasonal in nature, only occurring during spring tides for a limited period in late winter.
A joint operation was undertaken in conjunction with Environment Agency (EA) officers on elver fishermen on the River Severn. This was to gather intelligence on the applicants for a new elver station in Gloucestershire. This was followed up with a visit to the new elver station to inform the operators of the regulatory framework. Sampling locations were as depicted in and included two known breeding sites and two non-breeding sites. Intelligence continues to be successfully shared between the FHI, UK Border Force, Convention on Trade in Endangered Species officials, the EA and the National Wildlife Crime Unit. This can be done by feeding Debride DW medicated fish food. An operation has been undertaken with Southern Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority, the Marine Management Organisation and the FHI on illegal activities associated with shellfish harvesting and marketing from Poole Harbour.
Approximately eight offences were identified and will be taken forward by the appropriate agency. These are non-native species to the UK and are considered to have been illegally released from imported stocks. Further joint operations into illegal activities in Poole Harbour are planned in the future. The FHI supported the Animal and Plant Health GM Inspectorate in the investigation and seizure of genetically modified fish from four ornamental fish outlets in northern England, in contravention of legislation on the sale of such animals. National biosecurity is considered to be of high importance in relation to Defra strategic objectives. In March, Kevin Denham attended the Secretary of State’s monthly Biosecurity Meeting, a forum that considers current threats to biosecurity. He delivered a presentation to the Secretary of State Elizabeth Truss, the Minister of State George Eustice and senior Defra officials, on aquatic animal health focussing on the risks presented by Gyrodactylus salaris.
In 2015 the European Union’s Food and Veterinary Office (FVO) undertook a series of fact finding missions to member states and EFTA countries on barriers to the further development of aquaculture. In March, Alasdair Scott and Richard Gardiner attended a workshop organised under the Better Training for Safer Food initiative where the findings of the FVO were presented and assessed. This workshop was followed by a meeting of northern European member states organised by the Marine Institute, Republic of Ireland, which focussed on the disease issues, transport of fish and the establishment of a common approach to the draft EU aquatic animal health regulations. Effect of temperature and dietary L-carnitine supplementation on reproductive performance of female guppy (Poecilia reticulata). This very successful two day meeting focussed on the various challenges faced in the establishment and further development of recirculation aquaculture systems. The safety and efficacy of this strain as a recombinant attenuated vaccine against CyHV-3 were investigated using various approaches, including an in vivo bioluminescent imaging system (IVIS). Yvonne Ball is a member of the Animal Health and Welfare Board for England with responsibility for aquaculture.
The FHI organised a visit to a shellfish farm and hatchery in order to provide Yvonne with an understanding of the farming practices and challenges in this sector. Thin sections (70 to 90 nm) were placed on Formvar-coated copper grids and stained with uranyl acetate followed by lead citrate. The FHI use this to target customers visited by our inspectors during the preceding month. Feedback from customers is on a 1 to 4 scale (1: Bad / 4: Excellent) and allow operators to provide additional comments. A paper survey is sent to operators who don’t respond to the electronic survey or who don’t have email addresses. These surveys are undertaken in July and December. The FHI’s ATTA team use an email survey method to get feedback on advice.
S Afr J Wildl Res. Customers can also provide comments. Negative feedback and complaints from any of these surveys is followed up on receipt, following the FHI’s Service Charter. Survey results form part of the key performance indicators and are presented at FHI and Cefas monthly management team meetings.