Gluck Center

Gluck Center

Sam Houston Race Park has issued a policy on equine herpesvirus that goes into effect March 6 and will be in place until further notice, according to a memo issued by the track Monday. This policy has been developed in collaboration with the Oklahoma Horse Racing Commission in order to safeguard the welfare of horses participating at Oklahoma racetracks. Skin biopsies were harvested from 16 foals within 24 h of birth and fibroblast cultures were established, expanded and cryopreserved. Vet. 189 Description RHINOMUNE� is prepared by growing an attenuated strain of EHV-1 on an equine cell line and is packaged in freeze-dried form. Gluck Equine Research Center. Any individual that is found to be responsible for a horse entering the enclosure of a racetrack that does not conform to these conditions will be ejected from the grounds and will not be allowed to participate in the race meeting.

Bosh examined the influence of farm management and veterinary practices on reproductive efficiency. Cattle infected during pregnancy may abort. The specific immunizations needed by a particular horse or horses depend upon several factors: environment, age, use, exposure risk, geographic location, and general management. Our data suggest that IgG isotype responses to EHV-1 are more diverse under field conditions than is revealed by experimental studies and that the current modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine induces a more restricted IgG isotype response than does natural exposure to EHV-1. On average, mares fail to produce a live foal in two out of seven years. Additionally, the virus load of nasal shedding and viremia were reduced by vaccination. Only 31% of mares experienced no drift, i.e., foaling on the same day or earlier in the subsequent year.

These observations suggest a more aggressive approach to breeding maiden, barren, and early foaling mares at the beginning of the season, including judicious breeding on foal heat, would have a beneficial impact on reproductive performance. None of the licensed vaccines are labelled to protect against the neurological form of the disease (13). Eastern/Western Equine Encephalomyelitis- These diseases are caused by closely related viruses that survive in the wild bird population and then are transmitted to other animals via mosquitoes. Of increasing impact on performance as it applies to Kentucky is the trend toward increasing book size (the number of mares covered by a stallion during the breeding season). Figures published by the Jockey Club indicate the average book size for Kentucky stallions in 1995 was 35, whereas in 2005 it had risen to 58—compared to a national average of 17. These early vaccines worked on simple principles. Breeding costs comprising veterinary and vanning charges represent a very small percentage of the overall annual cost, which includes the stud fee, maintenance of the mare, and annual mare capital cost (depreciation).

Yet it is the breeding cost that has the greatest impact on reproductive performance. VP2 is the principal serotype specific antigen of AHSV, and the majority of neutralising epitopes are located on VP2 [7]–[9]. Neibergs. Ab4 ΔORF1/2 infected ponies showed significantly shortened primary fevers, and reduced nasal viral shedding, despite the fact that both viruses show similar in vitro growth kinetics. Timing – strictly speaking, timing is a factor of immunity rather than the vaccine itself. Finally, if your horse is exceptionally sensitive, ask your vet whether it would be advisable to administer a dose of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication such as flunixin meglumine (Banamine?) prior to vaccination to minimize side effects. Identical aa residues are bolded.

However, each of these EHV-1 gene products is capable of eliciting both B- and T-cell responses; thus, the role of distinct immune functions conferring protection is not clearly defined. Respiratory disease due to EHV was widely diagnosed among several breeds of horses throughout France and three cases of Coital Exanthema (EHV-3) were diagnosed in the United Kingdom among non-Thoroughbreds. The outbreaks of Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) reported from Italy and Ireland in June continue to be investigated and further cases have been diagnosed. The origin in both countries is considered to be the administration of an infected equine biological product. R., Meyer, A. 41-46. West Nile Virus (WNV) infection was diagnosed for the first time in Argentina during February and March.

(B) Enlarged section of the analyzed part of the US genome region of wild-type virus (ILTV-A489) and of a gJ rescue mutant (ILTV-gJR) with relevant restriction sites. In the United States equine cases of WNV were reported by the end of June from Iowa, North Dakota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming with human cases reported in California, Mississippi, and Texas. Strangles is a respiratory disease caused by an abscess forming bacteria, Streptococcus equi. EP is considered to be a foreign animal disease in the U.S., but it occurs�in many other areas of the world. A: For young horses under the age of 5, it is recommended they have dental check-ups twice a year. Preventive measures can then be immediately implemented to restrict the spread of infection and mitigate serious disease and economic losses. Accepting that EVA has now become established within the Quarter Horse population, it will be necessary to introduce a preventive program of vaccination accompanied by appropriate monitoring to determine the extent of this infection within the population.

States with more persistent mosquito populations may require more aggressive vaccinations along with aggressive mosquito control techniques. The immunity generated in horses after vaccination is relatively short lived so unless a horse is constantly challenged its immunity wanes and it can be reinfected quite quickly. Administer the third dose at 10 to 12 months of age. The center made the recommendation, which was accepted, that shipment of semen from stallions on the farm be halted. On June 23 results revealed very high antibody titers to equine arteritis virus in the majority of the sera, and by June 26 the virus had been isolated from the semen of two stallions. These findings provided very strong circumstantial evidence of recent exposure to the virus, which was later confirmed by examination of paired sera from individual animals. The owner promptly informed clients that had recently received semen from the infected stallions as well as those who had moved the many donor and recipient mares on and off the farm.

Any animal can carry rabies, however, bats can live the longest with the disease before succumbing to its effects so they serve as the source of spread, especially here in Missouri with its multitude of caverns and caves and bat population. Following extensive communication and submission of numerous samples to the Gluck Center by farms that had recently received semen or mares from the index farm, it was confirmed that equine arteritis virus infection had become widely disseminated to farms both within the state and in six other states. With considerable historical information provided by the index farm, it was determined that infection was most likely introduced in late May, with four stallions becoming infected in early June, three of which began to “shed” virus in their semen. Serological examination of over 200 animals on the farm confirmed an extremely high prevalence of infection, with every mare, foal, and stallion on the farm found seropositive. A third of the yearling colts were also positive, with the yearling fillies being serologically negative. Transfection of each of the equine γ1–γ7 H chain expression vectors into CHO cells stably expressing a compatible mouse λ light (L) chain allowed expression of all seven subclasses. Similar marker vaccines based on gE-deleted PrV have been used to successfully eradicate Aujeszky’s disease from several countries including Germany and the United States (37, 49, 50).

However, the number of pregnant mares losing their pregnancies during early gestation was very high. The initial spread of infection was considered to have been through aerosol transmission from direct contact with animals in the acute stage of infection. This transmission was compounded by the high concentration of animals on the premise. Secondarily, it was thought to be spread by venereal transmission once stallions became semen “shedders” and carriers of equine arteritis virus. Vaccination of non-exposed yearlings using the modified live vaccine ARVAC® (Fort Dodge Animal Health) was undertaken on the farm, and other animals considered at risk on other farms involved in the disease occurrence also were vaccinated. Because of previous low demand, limited supplies of vaccine were available within the United States, and these supplies were quickly used up, creating an immediate lack of vaccine availability. The supplier, Fort Dodge, has undertaken to manufacture a large batch of vaccine, which should be available in October, in time to initiate a vaccination program prior to the onset of the 2007 breeding season.

Over the last two years there has been increasing evidence of equine arteritis virus infection within the Quarter Horse population when compared to the results of the National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (NAHMS) published in 1998. That survey indicated that the prevalence of infection within the breed was as low as 0.5%. At a meeting of Quarter Horse breeders, owners, trainers, and veterinarians, held at Ruidoso Downs in New Mexico August 17 coinciding with the annual sales, the feasibility of embarking on a vaccination program of stallions and possibly mares was addressed. Currently this proposal is under consideration. If there is agreement on a policy of vaccination, this policy will need to be implemented prior to the commencement of the 2007 breeding season. A recent study by Dr. Karin Bosh at the Maxwell H.
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Gluck Equine Research Center examined the influence of management and veterinary factors on Thoroughbred broodmare reproductive efficiency. This article summarizes the development of an economic model as part of the study. Fortunately, the likelihood of this happening is very remote. For broodmare economics, a live foal is the critical production measure, because foals are the only source of production revenue. So, when we see what looks like flu in a horse that received an influenza vaccine last year, has the immunity from the vaccine worn off, or is the horse sick from a virus that we haven’t yet identified? There are many benefits from first cycle conception, including reduced breeding costs from eliminating repeated pre- and post-breeding veterinary treatments and reduced vanning costs. Earlier foaling dates may result in higher valued foals at sale due to greater weanling/yearling maturity and a reduced number of covers a stallion must make within the season.

Also, first-cycle conception minimizes the drift in a broodmare’s foaling date over time, which the study has shown to be a significant determinant of live foal rate. The conclusions reached were that rotavirus was a primary pathogen and was responsible for greater than 90% of outbreaks investigated. Costs were determined by defining best management practices through expert opinion from the panel of farm managers and veterinarians participating in the study. Breeding costs for broodmares conceived on the first cycle are $1,028 for barren broodmares, $902 for maiden broodmares, and $1,249 for foaling broodmares and include veterinary treatments and vanning costs. Costs increase $454 per cycle for each type of broodmare. The maintenance cost includes routine health and farrier costs plus a daily board rate of $26 per day for barren and maiden broodmares. Foaling broodmares have a board rate of $28 per day from March 29 to August 1 to account for the foal by the mare’s side.

Two additional major costs of breeding a broodmare are the stud fee and the annualized broodmare recovery cost. The stud fee is the largest production cost and is a highly correlated determinant of yearling value. Doll E.R., Bryans J.T., Immunization of young horses against viral rhinopneumonitis, Cornell Vet. The median stud fee of the broodmares in the study was $30,000 with a live foal guarantee. A broodmare is a capital asset, and depreciation cost recovery rules apply. The depreciation cost recovery period for young broodmares age 12 and under is seven years, and for broodmares over 12, the depreciation recovery period is three years. Depreciation represents the annualized capital cost of the broodmare.

The broodmare investment cost is held at $120,000 for all broodmare types, resulting in an annual capital cost of $17,143 for a young broodmare. Thompson about this vaccination. Although breeding costs are the lowest cost category, they produce the greatest marginal benefit, because these costs maximize reproduction efficiency. Breeders would be willing to invest in higher breeding costs if it increased the likelihood of a live foal. A broodmare’s annual cost will vary dependent on her quality. Higher quality broodmares have higher value and, therefore, a higher annual capital cost and will also be bred to higher quality stallions with higher stud fees. The annual breeding and maintenance costs are independent of broodmare quality and are the same for all broodmares regardless of quality.

Figure 1 illustrates the relative importance of breeding and maintenance costs in comparison to broodmare capital cost and stud fee. The graph clearly illustrates that as broodmare quality increases, the stud fees and broodmare capital costs dominate the cost structure of breeding broodmares. For foaling broodmares bred to a stallion with a stud fee of $1,000, the breeding and maintenance costs comprised 88% of the total costs to produce the live foal. For a foaling broodmare bred to a stallion with a stud fee of at least $70,000, the breeding and maintenance costs were less than 10% of the total production costs. By understanding how they work and how they?re made, you’ll be better equipped to make decisions about not only what diseases you’ll include in your horse’s vaccination, but also which vaccines to choose. Similar distributions were observed for maiden and barren broodmares. The level of stud fee/mare quality dictates opportunities for management to influence profitability through cost management practices.

Indeed, recombinant canarypox virus based vaccines for the prevention of equine influenza, West Nile virus or equine herpesvirus infections have already been developed for use in horses, and for the prevention of the closely related BTV in sheep [41]–[44]. Assessing reproductive performance in the horse has long been a topic of interest. The Kentucky study examined how farm level management and veterinary practices influence Thoroughbred broodmare reproductive efficiency. The project developed annual breeding and production costs. Work is ongoing to model the multiyear broodmare investment period and to incorporate the broodmare’s reproduction efficiency over time as part of the profitability of a Thoroughbred broodmare investment. molecular mass 10 kDa), molecular mass of the CT-null UL49.5 is approx. MLN were removed 5 days after i.n.

L. intracellularis has been reported to infect several species, including the pig, hamster, rabbit, non-human primate, dog, guinea pig, rat, mouse, fox, white-tailed deer, ferret, and selected birds. L. intracellularis most commonly causes proliferative enteropathy in foals 3 to 7 months of age, with a higher incidence in those recently weaned. Older horses also can be affected. A wide range of clinical signs can be associated with the disease, including diarrhea, dehydration, lethargy, colic, progressive weight loss, rough hair coat, poor body condition, and pendulous abdomen (potbelly appearance). Fuchs and D.

Gross lesions caused by L. intracellularis usually involve the distal jejunum, ileum, and proximal colon, although any portion of the intestinal tract can be affected. Pathologic lesions range from multifocal to confluent regions of mucosal hyperplasia. These hyperplastic mucosal regions can form circumferential areas as well as coalescing prominent folds or rugae (corrugated appearance). The affected mucosal surface may demonstrate variable degrees of erosion and/or ulceration. Ulcerated lesions can oftentimes lead to intestinal perforation and peritonitis. If administered to young foals in this manner, a third dose of the modified live vaccine should be administered 2 to 4 weeks before the foal is weaned to optimize protection during that time of high risk of infection.

Variable numbers of small and curved bacteria are located within the apical cytoplasm of hyperplastic enterocytes and are readily discernible when silver stains (Warthinstarry and Steiner’s) are applied to affected tissues. Minimal to no inflammation involving mononuclear cells is associated with proliferative enteropathy unless concurrent ulceration is present. Few diagnostic techniques are available to diagnose proliferative enteropathy. Ultrasonographic evaluations of the intestinal tract may reveal segmental to diffuse thickening of intestinal loops, depending on the severity and stage of the disease process. Additional antemortem diagnostic procedures include serology via ELISA and immunoperoxidase monolayer antigen assay, immunohistochemistry and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing of fecal smears, mucosal scraping, and/or biopsies. Postmortem diagnostics include close gross evaluation of the entire intestinal tract during necropsy, silver staining of intestinal segments examined histologically, and PCR testing on mucosal scrapings of affected/diseased intestinal segments. PCR testing of mucosal scrapings is considered the most sensitive and specific of all aforementioned diagnostic procedures.

L. intracellularis cannot be cultured using conventional media, although it can be cultured on cell cultures under microaerophilic conditions. The incidence of young equids acquiring an infection with L. intracellularis has increased over the past five years within Central Kentucky. A prominent feature of O-glycosylation sites is an increased frequency of proline residues, especially at positions −1 or +3 relative to the glycosylated residue (Wilson et al., 1991). Late transcripts (γ1 and γ2) of ILTV could be detected in cells infected for 6 and 16 h without any drugs. Seventy-four of the 354 submitted samples had positive PCR results (21%).

These positive PCR results were obtained from horses residing on 157 farms within six Kentucky counties. Twenty-six out of the 74 positive PCR results were accompanied by necropsy specimens that demonstrated characteristic histologic lesions suggestive of an infection with Lawsonia (Figure 2). The preferred location for L. intracellularis is within the apical cytoplasm of enterocytes. Using antimicrobials that have the ability to penetrate cellular membranes is strongly recommended. Reports concerning Lawsonia infections in horses consider an Erythromycin-Rifampin combination to be the preferred and most effective treatment regimen. Additional antimicrobials reported efficacious for treatment include chlortetracycline, penicillin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin.

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Gluck Center Equine Disease Communication Center28 mei om 15:32 · 5/28/2016 Equine Herpes viruses Cooke County, TX Status: Confirmed case(s) quarantined On May 24, 2016, late in the evening, a mare at a breeding farm in Cooke County, TX was reported to be infected with EHM on PCR from a blood sample. Galveston County Rap Battles showcases some of the county\’s finest putting their bars where their mouth is!!! Not this year. Therefore, it should be no surprise that changes of comparable or even greater magnitude are occurring in the realm of biology. The information in this article is a compilation of extracts from press releases and web postings for Monday and Tuesday, May 16-17, 2011. Beyond that, genetic principles simply provided a basis for understanding hereditary diseases. The virus can become more virulent, resulting in increased fever, decreased circulation, and hemorrhage.

That horse had attended the event in Utah and has been in quarantine since its return to Texas. The horse genome sequence was completed in 2006 and is routinely used to discover the genetic basis for many hereditary diseases, performance traits, and coat color patterns. The incubation period of EHV-1 is typically 2-10 days. Epidemiological investigations have started with the help of Friedrich-Loeffler Institute. Scientists studying muscle biology, reproduction, infectious diseases, immunology, and pharmacology routinely use DNA sequences to investigate targets for treatment and responses to intervention. Under the rules, 20 horses have a chance to run in the Kentucky Derby. Scientists studying horses used to spend months, and tens of thousands of dollars, cloning and sequencing genes.

Symptoms include a fever, nasal discharge and a wobbly gait. Unfortunately, the horse genome sequence by itself is inadequate to address many important questions. However it is a great foundation for new tools. We can use the horse genome sequence as a basis to investigate gene expression. We can determine what train of events is initiated when we vaccinate a horse, when a horse eats a particular diet, or when a horse experiences an infection. Each of these activities triggers changes in gene expression. Urine dribbling and loss of tail tone may also be seen.

Check with your veterinarian on the correct vaccination schedule for your situation, age of your animals, and the type of work your horses do. Scientists are already trying to determine this kind of information, but the magnitude of the problem and the paucity of resources combine to thwart real progress. A central repository is needed for gene expression information for the horse. The United States Department of Agriculture is encouraging scientists to collaborate in developing these resources for all agriculturally important species. ENCODE is the name of a similar resource developed for human medical research. The Illinois Department of Public Health previously reported two pregnant women tested p.. The potential to benefit equine veterinary medicine is huge.

We tend to fund research to solve specific problems and poorly support development of research infrastructure. EEE and WEE cycle normally in bird populations through mosquito transmission. Outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis continued to be confirmed in the USA, with the disease diagnosed on 365 premises: 310 in Colorado and 55 in Texas. Zika has been — transmitted in Texas, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Tuesday. Of the 365 premises, 350 were equine, 13 were bovine, and two involved both equines and bovines. Some 430 virus-infected equines have been reported in Colorado and 78 in Texas. Outbreaks of strangles were reported by France (12 premises), Germany (four premises), Switzerland (one premises), and the USA (27 premises).

In the USA, 59 cases were diagnosed in 14 states; other countries reported isolated cases of the disease. Ireland, the UK, and the USA confirmed outbreaks of influenza. The disease was diagnosed in non-vaccinated Thoroughbreds in two counties in Ireland. Eight outbreaks were reported by the UK, the vast majority involving isolated cases in non-vaccinated horses and ponies. The USA recorded two outbreaks in Ohio and one in Kentucky. Equine herpesvirus (EHV)-1 and -4 related diseases were recorded in Argentina, France, Germany, Ireland, the UK, and the USA. Respiratory disease caused by EHV-4 was confirmed in France (three outbreaks), Germany (nine horses), Ireland (nine cases involving two premises), and the UK (isolated cases on nine premises).

Track officials say they hope that will change Wednesday, when New Mexico livestock officials are expected to lift the quarantine. France reported a single case of EHV-4 abortion in a Thoroughbred mare. Both confirmed EHV-1 positive horses had recently attended the National Cutting Horse Association’s Western National Championships in Ogden, Utah.? Canada and the USA recorded cases of equine infectious anemia (EIA). A total of 20 cases of the viral infection were confirmed on eight premises in Saskatchewan, Canada, some of which also had cases within the past few years. The USA reported at least 20 cases in California involving Quarter Horse racehorses, the majority illegally smuggled into the country and most engaged in non-sanctioned racing. Equine piroplasmosis was recorded as endemic in France, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Arab Emirates.

The USA reported 11 cases of dual piroplasmosis and EIA infections in California and a number of additional cases in Texas and Florida all in high-risk animals, specifically Quarter Horse racehorses engaged in non-sanctioned racing. During the third quarter of 2014, a total of 114 cases of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis were diagnosed in the USA. Cases were recorded in 16 states with the vast majority (58) confirmed in Florida. West Nile virus encephalitis was reported by Italy (two cases caused by lineage 2 virus), Turkey (one case), and the USA where 32 states reported 66 cases. California, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas had the most positives. An outbreak of Getah virus infection was recorded at a training center in Japan. Clinical signs were observed in 22 horses of which slightly over 50% had been vaccinated against the disease.

Rhodococcal related disease was reported by the USA. At least 44 outbreaks were diagnosed. The USA also recorded an increase in the frequency and geographic distribution of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection among states. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are commonly used in veterinary medicine for the detection of infectious agents. These tests have grown in popularity due to their cost effectiveness, rapid turn-around time, and ability to detect un-culturable pathogens. The judicious interpretation of PCR results will remain imperative as new assays are developed and implemented. Familiarity with PCR technology and the organism being assessed is essential for the appropriate interpretation of results.

Nucleic acid, such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is a hereditary material that serves as a template to propagate proteins that perform essential cellular functions. Nucleic acid sequences are unique to each organism and can be used as a genetic fingerprint to identify a particular organism. PCR is a complex technique used to amplify a small segment of nucleic acid. In a simplified summary, nucleic acid is extracted from a sample; mixed with various reagents; and amplified in a thermocycler. If the nucleic acid of interest is present, then thousands to billions of copies will be made. These copies can be detected by gel-based or real-time platforms. Either platform can be used to determine whether a sample is positive or negative; appropriate positive and negative controls are included in every assay.

Using gel-based platforms, results are positive or negative and are not quantitative. Real-time platforms identify each amplified copy with a fluorescent probe, which can be instantaneously (in real time) detected and displayed by a computer. The detection of the organism’s nucleic acid is considered significant once the number of amplified copies meets a statistically determined threshold—CT value. The CT value indicates the number of times that the sample was amplified before it crossed the threshold and allows for quantitation of the original sample; a lower CT value indicates that more target nucleic acid (more organisms) was present in the original sample. PCR assays are not flawless, and results can be misinterpreted. PCR assays are designed to be highly sensitive (do not incorrectly report positive samples as negative) and specific (do not incorrectly report negative samples as positive). Sensitivity and specificity for a given agent can vary between assays and laboratories, because not all assays use the same reagents or amplify the same segment of nucleic acid.

A negative sample can be incorrectly reported as positive for a number of reasons. Samples can be contaminated, related organisms can have similar fingerprints, and nucleic acid can be detected from non-viable organisms. Similarly, positive samples may be incorrectly identified as negative due to inhibitors in the sample, collection of suboptimal samples (e.g., shallow versus deep nasal swabs for herpesvirus), and collection of samples at suboptimal times (e.g., after the period of peak shedding, or after implementation of antimicrobial therapy). These potential problems mandate that PCR results be interpreted in conjunction with appropriate clinical signs. PCR assays detect nucleic acid and not a disease. Knowledge of the epidemiology for the agent being assayed, the clinical signs and/or pathology induced by the infectious agent, and vaccination history are important for correct interpretation. Certain infectious agents can be normally found throughout the environment or within nonclinical carriers, thus detection of an agent in an animal without clinical disease should be warily interpreted.
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Additionally, PCR interpretation following recent vaccination with a modified-live vaccine should be carefully interpreted, because these vaccines may induce positive PCR results. In summary, PCR assays are extremely useful tools to identify infectious agents. However, results should be cautiously interpreted due to the potential variations in assays, techniques, and samples; detection of pathogens in the absence of disease; and vaccine interference. Heaves or broken wind are terms used for decades to describe an allergic respiratory disease of mature to older horses manifested by increased breathing efforts at rest and chronic coughing. Over 40 years ago, the German veterinarian H. Sasse used the term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to describe horses with heaves because of similarities with the human disease. However, our knowledge of respiratory diseases in people and horses has grown considerably since then and it is now clear that heaves in horses is more similar to asthma in people rather than COPD.

Veterinarians and scientists prefer using the term “recurrent airway obstruction” (RAO) that implies the reversible nature of the disease once horses are turned out on grass pasture. Equine asthma is used to describe the state of airway hyperresponsiveness following inhalation of dust particles commonly found in barns. Such exposure is usually the result of feeding moldy hay. However, some horses present identical signs while being on pasture during the summer in response to high levels of grass molds and tree pollen. Feeding round bales at pasture is more likely to trigger equine asthma and is usually associated with more severe disease. Molds are particularly abundant in moldy hay. However, it is important to note that the same types of molds are also present in good quality hay but in lower numbers.

A genetic predisposition has also been shown in some breeds, such as Warmblood and Lipizzaner. The goals of therapy are to avoid exposure to dust and to treat lung irritation. The most effective way to avoid dust is by keeping asthmatic horses outdoors all the time and not feeding hay. Appropriate substitutes to hay and grass are complete pelleted feeds or hay cubes. If horses have to be housed in a barn, it is important to use low-dust feed and bedding. Wetting hay or steaming it will help reduce dust levels, however some very sensitive asthmatic horses may still show signs. Most asthmatic horses improve one to two weeks after being turned outside on pasture with no access to hay but it may take one to two months for horses kept indoors to show the benefits from reduced dust levels.

Horses that only improve partially after dust exposure has been reduced should benefit further from drug treatment. Treatment with corticosteroids and bronchodilators help reduce lung irritation and hasten recovery. Oral or injectable drugs usually cost less than aerosol drugs. However, oral or injectable therapy may result in adverse effects. Albuterol, a commonly used bronchodilator, is not absorbed orally in horses but is effective when given as aerosol although the benefit is very short lived (around one hour). Antihistamines may help some asthmatic horses but most will eventually stop responding to treatment. Recently, we showed that feeding a supplement rich in omega-3 fatty acids helps asthmatic horses breathe better and stop coughing within two to four weeks.

Remember, horses evolved on earth as free roaming grazing animals. Modern use of horses dictated husbandry practices that are not ideal for the horse respiratory health. Asthmatic horses in particular will greatly benefit from returning to their ancestral environment. Cervical stenotic myelopathy (CSM), commonly known as wobbler syndrome, is a neurologic disease characterized by malformations of the neck vertebrae. This leads to narrowing of the cervical spinal canal and subsequent compression of the spinal cord. The cord compression manifests clinically as neurologic deficits, typically with the hind limbs being more severely affected than the forelimbs. Depending on the severity of the horse’s deficits, euthanasia is often elected for humane and horse and human safety reasons.

Equine CSM is considered to be a multifactorial disease with high planes of nutrition, increased growth rates, alterations in zinc and copper concentrations, and genetic determinants implicated in disease development. Although all these factors are known or suspected to play a role, the exact mechanistic details that lead to clinical disease are still unclear. Gender, breed, and age factors are well represented in the current knowledge base of this devastating disease. Males are more often affected than females. Breeds such as Thoroughbreds, American Saddlebreds, Warmbloods, and Tennessee Walking Horses are overrepresented in the identification of the syndrome. Various studies have identified the mean age of CSM horses as less than 2 years leading to the categorization of CSM as a developmental bone disease. Over the years, assessment methods and analytical approaches for accurate clinical diagnosis of CSM have been developed.

All clinical workups begin with a thorough neurologic examination looking primarily for signs of ataxia. The next step is visualization of the neck using radiography. Standard ratios based on skeletal anatomical measurements have been defined at each intervertebral site to identify presumptive areas of spinal canal narrowing. For visualization of actual spinal cord compression, myelograms can be performed. Once a diagnosis of CSM is made, several management and treatment options are available. More conservative approaches center on dietary modification and anti-inflammatories to slow growth rates, reduce swelling of non-skeletal tissues, and possibly allow vertebral bone remodeling to reduce cord compression. More aggressive approaches involve surgical intervention to alleviate cord compression via cervical vertebral fusion.

Despite all that is known, important questions still remain about wobbler syndrome. Recent research at the Gluck Equine Research Center has focused on CSM. Developments in diagnostic imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT), enable the characterization of lesions along the entire neck. High-resolution images from multiple angles and the ability to visualize the cervical vertebrae, spinal cord, and associated soft tissues together provide powerful data to study and understand CSM pathology. The combined resources of imaging modalities, clinical resources, and thorough necropsy examinations are providing new insights for CSM research. Although currently used in the research settings, changes in these imaging units to accommodate the size of the horse will allow for the possible use of CT or MRI for clinical diagnosis in the future. The role of inherited genetic determinants is a long-standing question.

Due to rapidly developing genomic technologies, studies are now being conducted to investigate the equine genome to identify specific genes that may contribute to CSM susceptibility. This is an exciting area of research that could have an important impact on breeding decisions and management of potentially susceptible horses. A laboratory test is only as good as the sample submitted. That sample should be collected, stored and shipped properly, with appropriate paperwork, for the most reliable and accurate results. Among possible samples that can be submitted to a laboratory for testing are serum, whole blood, feces, urine, swabs, washes, tissue samples, biopsies, feed, hay, water, and entire animals. The following guidelines will help get the most information from diagnostic submissions. Serum is often required when a titer, or antibody determination, is desired.

If serum is needed, allow the blood to clot, and then pour the serum into a different clean tube. Allowing the serum to sit on the clot too long can cause the red blood cells to rupture, or hemolyze. Hemolysis will interfere with many laboratory tests. Gel tubes, or serum separator tubes, are meant to aid the separation of serum from red cells following centrifugation and are not optimal for shipping. Tests such as complete cell counts, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction assays often require submission of plasma or whole blood. For these tests, blood needs to be unclotted, therefore, use tubes containing an appropriate anticoagulant and have been gently inverted five to six times after collection. Samples should be submitted using proper biosecurity guidelines in capped, clean, leak-proof, spill-proof, labeled containers.

And, while a palpation sleeve would seem to be the perfect, convenient submission container (especially for fecal specimens), it is not an acceptable vehicle for samples. Storage on the dashboard or console of a vehicle is not optimal. Most samples need to be kept cool. Tissues in formalin need not be cooled, but must be in leak-proof containers. Serious monetary fines from shipping companies or laboratories may be imposed as formalin is a hazardous substance. Shipping on cold packs for next day delivery is recommended for most biological samples. Samples should be sent in sturdy, insulated packaging that will not allow the specimen or container to be crushed in transit.

Padded envelopes are not sufficient for shipping blood tubes. The paperwork is critical, beginning with the labeling of the specimen. Label the specimen minimally with the name/ID # of the animal, contents, and date. The submission form needs to be filled out as completely as possible. The collection date is important and imperative for regulatory tests. As a general rule, the more history, the better. Be sure to indicate treatments with antibiotics, recent vaccinations, etc., because these can impact test results and interpretation.

If an entire animal is submitted for necropsy, be mindful that decomposition begins quickly in warmer weather. If the animal is submitted for a neurologic examination or is a rabies suspect, do not damage the brain. Gunshot or blunt force trauma to the head is contraindicated for a testable specimen.

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VerwijderenWe gebruiken cookies om inhoud en advertenties relevanter te maken en je een veiligere ervaring te bieden. The organization has placed a number of restrictions on horses allowed to ship into the Highfields Event Center property, said Rick Cram, its owner/organizer. The disease was identified through case materials submitted to Williams, who works within the Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation and is jointly appointed at MSU’s Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health. Stables near the one where the sick horse resided are being notified of the situation and owners are cautioned to monitor horses at their premises carefully. If it is necessary to arrive at any other time you must contact the show office prior and check in with night security. These unseen pathogens are not only waiting to find a new host in your horse, but are also happy to hitch a ride home and infect his stablemates. I’m actually not trying to be stylish when I wear my tall boots in public, and get annoyed when people compliment me on my cutting edge attire.

The links attached are for reference only, they do not constitute accurate, detailed information on each trail and users must make their own investigation for suitability for themselves and their horse. “The Department took swift action to prevent the disease from spreading to other horses by enacting a quarantine, which stops movement of horses in and out of the farm and puts in place preventive measures to contain the virus,” said New Jersey Secretary of Agriculture Douglas H. Horse-to-horse contact, as in shared pastures or the use of communal feed and water buckets is a prime danger. Many of the conditions discussed in this issue occur as outbreaks, and diagnostic laboratories are on the forefront of emerging disease recognition, outbreak detection, and surveillance. Antibodies against Hendra virus have been found in 4 species of fruit bats along the east coast as far south as Melbourne, and also along a significant portion of the west coast of Australia. Unfortunately, in a time of budget cuts and revenue shortfalls, diagnostic laboratories are facing challenges in their efforts to provide rapid and complete service. Never has technology been advancing more rapidly than now, and it offers more rapid, sensitive, and accurate testing and disease diagnosis.

The horses have also all been exercised separately to prevent the spread of the disease. After five more horses at the Ocala show tested positive for EHV-1, state officials decided on the quarantine. Horses must be able to adapt to a variety of rider levels and experiences. Their importance must be realized and commitments made to adequately support and staff them. It is unrealistic for the major operational costs of a diagnostic laboratory to be borne solely by its users. Financial support must be viewed as an investment that will pay great dividends. Ventral crackles and bilateral wheezes were noted in some horses.

Cases of African Horse Sickness (AHS) occurred in South Africa during the fourth quarter of 2007 and continued in 2008. The outbreak affected mainly young, unvaccinated, non-Thoroughbred breeding animals on a variety of premises, although vaccinated animals were also affected. A variety of options exist from basic Pine-Sol to high-tech industrial products, but different classes of disinfectants work very differently and not all are suitable for agricultural application. I’ve tried horse treats. WA’s LARGE ANIMAL RESCUE HORSE NAMED Feb 2015 The arrival of the 380 kilo 15 hh model horse for use in Large Animal Rescue training prompted the the Western Australian Horse Council (WAHC) to run a  ‘Name the Horse’ competition. Cases of abortion attributable to equine herpes virus-type 1 (EHV-1) infection were confirmed in Ireland (nine cases on five premises), Japan, (18 cases on 14 premises), the United Kingdom (three cases), and Central Kentucky, USA (10 cases among Thoroughbred mares on 10 farms). A single abortion attributable to EHV-4 was diagnosed both in Ireland and in the United Kingdom.

An outbreak of paralytic disease caused by the non-neuropathogenic strain of EHV-1 was reported on a premise in France, affecting a non-Thoroughbred stallion and two mares that aborted. The bacteria cause muscle spasms in affected animals. The last cases of equine influenza in Australia were reported on December 9, 2007, in New South Wales and on December 25 in Queensland. Other states and territories in Australia have remained free of influenza. There has been free movement of horses throughout Australia since March 14, 2008, and an extensive influenza surveillance program continues to be in place. In Japan, positive cases of influenza were detected at the Japan Racing Association (JRA) Ritto Training Center during January and in February at the Miho Training Center, with no new cases reported since March 11. Several riding horses stabled at Tokyo Racecourse and Chukyo Racecourse tested positive during February and March, respectively.

Recent influenza isolates in Japan show no signs of antigenic change from Ibaraki/07 isolated in August 2007. At non-JRA facilities, several horses tested positive in January, and positive cases among riding horses throughout the country have been reported. Equine influenza was widely reported in the north of Sweden during January, primarily among trotting horses that had not been correctly vaccinated. Switzerland reported an outbreak on one premise among vaccinated non-Thoroughbred horses. Four cases of Leptospira abortion were diagnosed among Thoroughbred mares in Central Kentucky during January, and cases of salmonellosis were diagnosed on two premises involving Thoroughbred horses during January in Japan. Strangles was reported on premises in France, Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA. According to the website, the goal of the EDCC is to alert the horse industry about disease-outbreak information to help mitigate and prevent the spread of disease.

I’ve dealt with bratty teens, in whom I see remnants of my old self and shudder to think what my trainers put up with some times. HORSE CONFIRMED WITH LYSSAVIRUS – a rabies related virus- May18 2013 Two horses have been euthanased at a property in Queensland and one has tested positive to the bat-born rabies like Lyssavirus. Formerly this organization was known as the American Horse Shows Association (AHSA). The name may have changed, but the mission of its Equine Drugs and Medications Program has stayed the same since the program’s inception in 1970. Over the past 38 years, the Equine Drugs and Medications Program has worked to protect the welfare of equine athletes and ensure the balance of competition. It is a myth that vaccinating against strangles can cause strangles. The USEF also contracts with the American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA) to enforce the AQHA’S drug rules by collecting samples at Quarter Horse competitions for analysis.

Additionally, the USEF is responsible for testing competitions throughout the United States that are operated under the rules of the Federation Equestre Internationale (FEI), the international governing body of equestrian sport headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland. In 2007, almost 17,000 blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed by the program, representing nearly 13,000 horses randomly selected for testing. Since 1995, the USEF has operated its own equine drug testing and research laboratory. Permitted substances include dewormers, antibiotics (except procaine penicillin), anti-fungals, antiprotozoals, vitamins, electrolytes, and anti-ulcer medications. Caution is urged if one is using so-called herbal or natural products, since plants are commonly the source for pharmacologically potent, forbidden substances such as cocaine, reserpine, and marijuana. Restricted medications include specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), methocarbamol (muscle relaxant), and dexamethasone (corticosteroid). Restricted drugs are allowed to be present in the horse at the time of competition provided they do not exceed the levels specifically set for each drug.

Currently, no more than two approved NSAIDs are permitted in a horse’s system at the same time, as long as neither is found in excess of respective restrictive levels. One exception to this regulation is flunixin and phenylbutazone, which are not permitted in a horse at the same time. A seven-day withdrawal from one of these two NSAIDs is recommended before initiating treatment with the other. He carried the bacteria home and innocently transferred them to his water bucket as he drank. Forbidden medications and substances include those that may affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, or central nervous system or have a behavior-altering affect. For information on the presentations click the heading. Some forbidden medications may be used for legitimate emergency treatment if proper steps are taken.
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In 2007, the USEF Drugs and Medications Program tested 802 days of competitions held under USEF rules, with slightly more than 150 positive findings. Violations included 26 for sedation and long-acting tranquilizers, 34 for excessive amounts of restricted medications, six for antihistamines, and violations for a lengthy list of miscellaneous substances. Penalties can include suspensions and/or fines and the return of all winnings. Fines for the above cases ranged from $750 to $5,000, and suspensions were for up to five months. The statistics for these positive findings do not include those of the AQHA. Including the testing done for the AQHA, more than 1,000 days of competition were tested. Not all positive findings may be violations.

If conditions for the therapeutic administration of a forbidden substance have been met, a positive finding can be considered compliance with the rule. The USEF strongly encourages its members to review the current USEF Drugs and Medications Rule and to be aware of the published recommendations for treating a horse in competition. These recommendations can be found in the Federation’s Drugs and Medications Guidelines pamphlet at West Nile Virus (WNV), an arbovirus endemic in North America, is the causative agent of West Nile equine encephalomyelitis (WNEE) and an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of horses with signs of neurologic disease. WNV vaccination is important in the prevention of WNEE and is considered one of the core equine vaccinations by the American Association of Equine Practitioners. Core equine vaccinations are those indicated for use in all horses irrespective of use or geographic location in the USA. (

Since the initial detection of WNEE in 1999 in New York, the virus has spread throughout the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia. Data available from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) indicate that from 1999 through 2006 a total of 24,841 WNEE equine cases have been laboratory confirmed. FOURTH HORSE DEATH FROM HENDRA IN NSW -July 17th 2011 The NSW Department of Primary Industries (DPI) has confirmed Hendra virus as the cause of a fourth horse death on the NSW North Coast, this time at a property near Lismore. Current as well as historical data regarding the number and location of WNEE is available at and in the “Equine 2005 Part II: Changes in the U.S. Equine Industry,” 1998-2005 at While still an endemic disease in the USA, a decline in WNEE is probably due to a combination of naturally acquired immunity, management, and frequent use of WNV vaccination. Management and control measures in the USA include pesticide use against larvae and adult mosquitoes, repellents (topical pyrethroids), and vector-resistant housing such as screened stalls or stalls with fans to reduce mosquito activity.

It is important to acknowledge that the number of cases reported could be impacted by factors in addition to actual cases, including disease recognition on the part of equine owners, pursuit of an etiologic diagnosis by the examining veterinarian through laboratory testing, and reporting criteria and surveillance at the state level. The frequency of use of the WNV vaccines has been estimated in the National Animal Health Monitoring Systems (NAHMS) “Equine 2005 Part I: Baseline Reference of Equine Health and Management.” For operations that gave any type of vaccine to equids in the previous year, eighty-five percent vaccinated some or all of their resident horses against WNV, making this the most commonly used vaccine in horses in the USA. These facts illustrate the rapid and widespread response of both pharmaceutical companies and the equine industry to the disease risk posed by WNV in the USA. Three different types of WNV vaccines are now licensed and commercially available for use in horses in the USA: WNV killed with adjuvant; WNV canarypox recombinant with adjuvant; and WNV chimera with yellow fever virus vaccine. With an estimated equine population in the USA of approximately six million, the vaccine manufacturers marketed approximately 4.1 million doses in 2006. The monitoring of abortions attributable to equine herpes virus type-1 (EHV-1) initiated in 1957 among the Thoroughbred mare population of Central Kentucky has continued annually for the past 51 years. The number of abortions per 1,000 pregnant mares (as illustrated in Figure 2), based on accessions to the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center (LDDC) and confirmed by laboratory diagnosis, is considered an accurate reflection of the field incidence.

This accurate number is due to the diligence of farm managers and attending veterinarians ensuring that all fetuses and neonatal foal losses are submitted for examination. The figure for the number of pregnant mares is derived annually from the number of foals registered by the Jockey Club, taken as 70% of mares considered in foal. The most recent Jockey Club 2007 Fact Book reported 9,903 foals registered in Kentucky for 2005—29% of the U.S. foal crop—which translates to 14,147 pregnant mares. This number represents a recovery from the decline in numbers recorded during 2001 and 2002 due to the effects of Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS). The number of EHV-1 abortions per 1,000 pregnant mares has remained below five since 1977 despite a doubling in size of the mare population. CARNARVON FLOOD RELIEF – NOW QUEENSLAND FLOOD RELIEF – January 17th 2011 A financial relief fund started for those in the Carnarvon (WA) area affected by the floods has been transferred to the Queensland Horse Council, at the request of the Carnarvon Equestrian community, to help horse owners in Qld after the devestating floods that affected such a large area of that state.

The majority of cases in recent years are single events on individual farms among a population of mares that is routinely vaccinated against the disease. However, multiple abortions may still occur, as evidenced by one farm in 2007 that experienced six abortions. When multiple abortions occur, the initial or index case is usually the source of infection to subsequent losses. The aborted fetus and placenta are a potent source of virus that overwhelms the immunity of even a vaccinated mare that is a contact in the same barn or paddock. To prevent such an occurrence, the precautions outlined in Figure 3 should be strictly followed. The accumulated data confirms that sound management practices (as illustrated in Figure 4) combined with an annual vaccination program at five, seven, and nine months of pregnancy, have contributed to a low level of EHV-1 abortions over the past 30 years. Mammary neoplasia (tumors) in the mare is exceedingly rare.

To date, published cases consist of reports of six single cases and one report each for two, three, and four mares. Of published cases, all tumors were malignant except one report of a benign (non-cancerous) adenoma. Previous abattoir studies report an incidence of 0.11% to 1.99% for equine mammary tumors. Published reports of mammary neoplasia in mares have several characteristics in common. Mares presented with unilaterally or bilaterally enlarged mammary glands that were firm, usually painful, and typically ulcerated and/or draining serosanguinous or purulent material. Clinical signs progressed over weeks to months. Pregnancy and lactational status varied; age ranged from 12 to 21 years.

Initial diagnosis of mastitis and treatment with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents initially resulted in some improvement of discharge and swelling, but clinical signs always recurred. At the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center from 1994 to March 2008, 11 cases of mammary neoplasia were diagnosed. Most cases were submitted for necropsy; a small number were biopsy samples. The results will be available from the Western Australian Horse Council and Perth Region NRM later this year. Often there was a history of weight loss, depression, and laboratory results indicating other organs were affected by neoplasia, such as the liver and kidneys. More than half of the cases had gross and/or microscopic evidence of metastasis such as lymph node enlargement or neoplastic nodules in other organs. Based on these results, it appears that equine mammary neoplasms are much more likely to be malignant than benign, and hence carry a poor prognosis for long-term survival.

Definitive diagnosis of mammary neoplasia is made with microscopic examination of excised mammary tissue. Cytologic examination of fine needle aspirates and/or mammary discharge is usually unrewarding in terms of confirming or ruling out neoplasia. Most neoplastic lesions have an inflammatory component, especially with chronic and/or ulcerated masses. For that reason, observation of large numbers of inflammatory cells and bacteria does not help to differentiate between neoplasia with an inflammatory response and true inflammation of the mammary gland. A core or excisional biopsy taken from affected tissue some distance away from sites of ulceration and drainage is recommended. Samples taken from ulcerated tissue may show only inflammation and necrosis and not contain enough neoplastic tissue for definitive diagnosis. The treatment of choice for mammary neoplasia in the mare is total removal of mammary tissue and any accessible lymph nodes.

Disease may initially appear unilaterally but subsequently become bilateral or show evidence of bilateral disease grossly or microscopically. Unfortunately, by the time a definitive diagnosis is made and surgery is performed, metastasis to regional and distant lymph nodes and tissues has most likely occurred. Most mares do well immediately after surgery then have recurrence of neoplasia at the excision site or evidence of metastasis such as lymph node enlargement, weight loss, and malaise. Mares are often euthanized due to poor prognosis or deterioration due to metastases. In a mare with enlarged mammary glands and poor response to antibiotic therapy, neoplasia should be considered a differential diagnosis.

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BADMINTON Horse Trials, cancelled by the outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 2001 and by waterlogging last year, faces a new threat in 2013 – Equine Herpes Virus (EHV). Veterinary and university hospitals, because they house sick animals along with healthy ones awaiting routine surgeries, have been at the fore­front of what is now routinely known as biosecurity. As was repeatedly emphasized at the October 2012 9th International Conference on Equine Infectious Diseases in Lexington, KY, horses are worldwide travelers, and only through constant disease surveillance, testing, and communication can we further the understanding of disease incidence and spread. M., Sells, S. A 2-year-old Thoroughbred filly in Florida was confirmed positive for T. The uninitiated need to spend time with the established. It is based on information provided by individuals who participated in the confidential survey and supplied data about their horse operations.

The only U.S.-approved WNV vaccines are for equine, and the American Association of Equine Practitioners lists WNV as a core vaccine, emphasizing its importance. They didn’t throw away the envelope. In the “Intermediate Girls” individual competition Charlotte and Emma Whitaker came a fantastic 7th and 25th respectively (out of 104 competitors !), with Emma getting the trophy for the youngest competitor with the highest score. It also describes the virulent form of EHV-1, the… If the weather is even half pleasant, more than 200,000 people will clog the narrow lanes of Gloucestershire to get a glimpse of the horses. The study provided evidence for S. zooepidemicus and S.

Late respondents were more likely to obtain the survey directly in an email from the NED and less likely to obtain it from other affiliated organisations such as British Dressage, British Eventing, Endurance GB, BHS, or WHW. The vaccine does not offer complete protection to the individual but may reduce the severity of disease and reduces the amount of virus that is spread if a horse becomes infected and thereby reduces the risk to other horses. What is the purpose of the survey? Read the survey website. Using two different approaches; 5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine (EdU) and Cu (I)-catalysed cycloaddition ‘click’ reaction assay and tritiated thymidine [3H] uptake to show lymphocyte activation in response to anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, it was demonstrated that the anti-CD3 mAb was able to activate cell proliferation and allowed cell division and population expansion. Volume 11 (NEW) , Number 3 (46); 1345-1355. J.

Or it may be critical in determining risk factors for a disease outbreak. Dr. Samples from the hay being fed to the horses were tested with the quantitative ARGT ELISA, and results indicated that the hay was high risk for causing ARGT, with, on average, 300 or more galls/kg of the toxic bacterium Rathayibacter toxicus. Rossano’s article outlines the survey logistics for those contemplating such an endeavor. After seeing a presentation on the survey results, I was impressed not only by the economic impact of the Kentucky horse industry, but also in the hours of hard work by multiple individuals and organizations as well as of the people who completed the survey. Reports of contagious equine metritis (CEM) were received from Germany, Ireland, and the USA. Three stallions and one mare, all non-Thoroughbreds, were confirmed positive for Taylorella equigenitalis in Germany.

The excessive oedema of the ventral neck or throat is suggestive of the bite site, supporting this presumptive diagnosis. Three recently imported Dutch Warmblood mares were cultured positive for T. equigenitalis in post-entry quarantine in Kentucky, USA. California reported detection of the organism in two mares and two stallions, all non-Thoroughbreds, none of them recently imported. One of the mares had been bred to one of the positive stallions in 2012. The original source of infection for this outbreak is still undetermined. Strangles was reported in France (two outbreaks), Ireland, Sweden (endemic) and the USA (outbreaks in Kentucky, Maine, Ohio, and South Carolina).

Equine influenza was only recorded in the USA, with outbreaks confirmed in Florida, Ohio, and Oregon. Two non-Thoroughbred stallions were diagnosed carriers of equine arteritis virus in Germany. Equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 related diseases were reported from France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Sweden, UK, and the USA. EHV-1 respiratory disease was confirmed in France (three outbreaks), the UK (three outbreaks), and the USA (numerous outbreaks in various states). Abortion due to EHV-1 was recorded in France (six outbreaks), Germany (five cases), Ireland (three outbreaks, one involving two cases of neonatal pneumonitis, and the other two outbreaks involving five mares), Japan (17 cases on 11 premises), Sweden (one outbreak), the UK (two outbreaks, including one case in a mare and another involving a fatal case in a neonatal foal), and the USA (five isolated cases). Multiple tests for ABLV were positive, including fluorescent antibody test (brain), pan-lyssavirus nested PCR (brain), pan-ABLV quantitative PCR (brain and oral swab), microbat variant-ABLV quantitative PCR (based on ABLV sequences from YBST, brain and oral swab) and virus isolation (brain). The USA recorded a significant number of outbreaks in some states during the first three months of 2013.

Wild type and mutant (neuropathogenic) strains of EHV-1 were associated with the USA outbreaks. Outbreaks involving wild type virus were characterized by low morbidity and low to zero case-fatality rates. Equine infectious anemia was recorded by France and the USA. The former diagnosed a fatal case in a donkey on Island La Réunion. The disease was confirmed on two premises in California, USA, one a “bush track” facility engaged in non-sanctioned racing (two positives of 16 tested). A further case was diagnosed on a second premises, epidemiologically related to the first. Reports of equine piroplasmosis were received from France (endemic), Switzerland (single case), United Arab Emirates (endemic in non-Thoroughbreds, periodic clinical cases), and California, USA (five positive cases of Theileria equi on one premises and two on another).

Salmonellosis was recorded by Germany (one case), Ireland (one case), and the USA (disease diagnosed in several states; species Groups B and C2 involved). Three cases of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis were reported from the USA. Cases/outbreaks of Lawsonia intracellularis infection were confirmed in foals in a number of states, with Kentucky recording 16 cases. The USA also reported 28 cases of leptospiral abortion in Kentucky and 20 cases of nocardioform placentitis and abortion (six due to Crossiella equi and 14 due to Amycolatopsis spp). A non-fatal case of Ross River virus infection was reported from the Northern Territory, Australia. A number of outbreaks of Rhodococcus equi infection were diagnosed in various states in the USA. The doughnut stand next door was ideally positioned for visitors to get refreshed and pick up a sample or leaflet from us at the same time.

with cases of equine fibrinous pneumonia was first reported in 1887 by the German bacteriologist J. W. Schultz. Now known as S. A smaller proportion of respondents stated their horses were kept between 11 and 50 miles away from their home (6.1%, 242/3966) and more than 50 miles away from their home (1.0%, 40/3966). Many of these infections are secondary to respiratory viral infections or to transportation of extended duration. Although different genetic and serologic variants (serovars) of S.

zooepidemicus co-colonize the tonsillar complex of most healthy horses, only a single Streptococcal clone is usually found in disease of the lower respiratory tract, a clone being isolates of a bacterial species that are indistinguishable in genotype. The invading clone varies from foal to foal in a group, although the same clone may affect more than one foal in that group. Genetic testing for specific genes in bacterial isolates can provide a valid, cost-effective approach to epidemiologic studies based on sequencing. Most equine respiratory infections associated with S. zooepidemicus appear to be endogenous involving expansion of a clone similar to those in that animal’s tonsillar complex. Nevertheless, outbreaks of respiratory disease involving specific clonal genotypes transmitted in a geographic area over an extended time period have been observed in recent years. Each outbreak was associated with a different sequence type of S.

zooepidemicus, a phenomenon similar to that observed with increasing frequency in dog shelters in North America, South Korea and the UK. The enhanced virulence/transmissibility of epidemic Streptococcal clones is probably explained by genetic rearrangement or acquisitions that affect expression of virulence factors or increase their ability to proliferate and damage respiratory tissue or avoid innate immune defenses. For instance, acquisition of sequence that encodes a binding site for plasminogen in a virulence protein would create sites on the bacterial surface with plasmin-associated proteolytic activity for host cell or plasma components. Rapid proliferation accompanied by shedding of large numbers of streptococci from the respiratory tract would favor onward transmission of the clone. The extreme diversity of S. zooepidemicus of equine origin and evidence that it has acquired DNA by lateral horse-to-horse transfer from other streptococci suggest emergence of novel clones may be a frequent event. The mechanism and site of these transfers are unknown.
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This approach has been used for decades in human medicine and is based on comparing the amount of antigen-specific antibody present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) relative to the blood. The major symptoms relate to partial or complete paralysis of the digestive tract. R., Adams, E., Adams, D. Another potential mechanism involves direct uptake and exchange of DNA, an extremely efficient process between co-colonizing strains of S. During this period the foot is mostly dependent on its architecture for support. Despite the diversity of equine isolates of S. Of greater significance was that the level of melatonin inhibition achieved did not differ when light was administered to one or both eyes.

This discovery will be a significant asset in the development of effective vaccines to combat Streptococcal respiratory infections. Inflammatory conditions of the pastern will be appearing with increasing frequency during the summer season. But as a diagnosis, “pastern dermatitis” leaves much to be desired. When this alone is noted on a biopsy report, it leaves the clinician and client with little useful knowledge. Other names for this condition, with slightly varying clinical appearances, include scratches, mud fever, grease heel, dew poisoning, grapes, canker, and verrucous pododermatitis. equirhinis organisms. For that, pathologists rely on a series of modifiers describing the more subtle histologic (microscopic) variations on the theme of “dermatitis,” and, just as importantly, a detailed history.

The skin overlying the pastern is not inherently different from anywhere else on the body, (with the exception of having longer hair, if not clipped). As such, the way it reacts to insult is rather ordinary: erythema (redness), erosions, ulcerations, and/or serous exudates in the acute phase of inflammation. Purulent (pus-like) exudate and granulation tissue form with a more prolonged insult, and fibrosis (scarring), epidermal thickening, and hyperkeratosis (scale, cornification) in chronic cases. The pastern, however, is uniquely qualified to develop severe, persistent, refractory skin disease because of its location and exposure to dirt, fecal material, persistent moisture, chemical irritants, ultraviolet rays, and direct trauma (plant stubble, rocks, over­reaching/interfering). (2004) Antibiotic Susceptibility Among Antibiotic Resistant Salmonellae Iisolated From Children (0-2 years) Affected by Diarrhea in Shahrekord and its Resistant Factor Transmissibility to E.coli K12. Trop. In acutely severe cases or cases that are unresponsive to treatment, biopsies offer a direct view of the disease process and can lead to a definitive diagnosis.

However, histopathology of inflammatory lesions is only useful when interpreted in light of the clinical history and gross appearance of the lesions. The New York outbreak occurred at a harness racetrack. Providing a detailed description, clinical history, overview of the animal’s environment, diet, vaccination history, and overall herd health are also critical as well as good quality digital photographs. Keep the area clean and dry. Monitor for and manage any sign of exuberant granulation tissue (proud flesh). Check the other feet and legs regularly to moni­tor any disease spread. Trace back revealed the pony had been imported from Holland with 27 other ponies that were released from quarantine recently.

With warm weather comes the increased risk of snakebite. The major venomous snakes in the United States are the pit vipers, including rattlesnakes, water moccasins, and copperheads. Pit vipers are named after the heat-detecting holes, or pits, on each side of the head that help the snake locate prey. Pit vipers can be differentiated from other snakes by their triangle-shaped heads, narrowed necks, and tail rattles (rattlesnakes only). Coral snakes, another type of poisonous snake in the U.S., do not pose much risk to horses because of their small mouth size. Venom components vary tremendously by snake species, but most venoms contain substances that cause breakdown of tissues and blood vessels, impair blood clotting, and damage the heart. Venoms from some species of snake also contain neurotoxins.

Snakebite severity depends on multiple factors such as snake species, size, recent feeding, and number of bites. Some bites are “dry bites,” where little venom is injected. Other bites, such as when a snake is stepped on and releases all of its venom agonally, can be very severe. Victim factors such as horse size, age, disease conditions, medications, and bite location also influence bite severity. Clinical signs of snakebite in horses vary widely but generally include pain and swelling at the bite site, and often sloughing of tissues near the bite. Bite wounds may not be readily apparent. Dry bites with little venom injected or bites from copperhead snakes often cause only mild signs.

Bites from dangerous species of snakes and large doses of venom can cause marked pain and swelling, coagulopathy, hemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmias, shock, collapse, and even death. With neurotoxic venoms, paralysis can occur. Horses bitten on the nose can develop nasal swelling and respiratory distress. Signs of envenomation can occur within minutes or be delayed for many hours. The best first aid is to keep the horse calm and arrange for immediate veterinary care. No first-aid treatments performed by owners in the field have proven particularly helpful, and many folk remedies can even be harmful. Suction devices have not been shown to be beneficial in animal models of snakebite.

Treatment varies with the severity of the bite, but may include fluids, pain medications, wound care, antibiotics, tetanus prophylaxis, and antivenin. Antivenin can decrease the amount of tissue damage and hasten recovery times, and can be especially helpful in cases of severe envenomation. Antivenin is dosed according to the estimated amount of venom injected, not the patient size, so even one vial of antivenin can have beneficial effects. Cardiac arrhythmias occur in many horses and may require treatment. Horses with severe nasal passage swelling may need treatment to maintain a patent airway; nutritional support may be required if swelling impairs the horse’s ability to eat and drink. Tekna saddles come in jumping, dressage and general purpose styles, all with a five-year structural warranty. Cardiac failure can occur weeks to months after the bite incident, necessitating continued evaluation and monitoring.

A vaccine is now available for use in horses to help prevent complications of snakebite, but efficacy in horses is not yet well documented. Contact your veterinarian for more information about snakebite in your region. Having reliable data on a state’s equine industry is important for policy makers, community planners, entrepreneurs, business owners, and veterinarians. The process by which the data are collected is integral in determining the reliability and accuracy of the results. Utilizing the services of an unbiased, professional survey group may be the most efficient way of completing such a project. Many of the states that have conducted these surveys joined forces with their field office of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS).

NASS conducts hundreds of surveys every year covering all types of commodities and livestock and are survey experts. NASS has a priority of providing unbiased statistics with the highest level of confidentiality and data security. This is especially important when dealing with sensitive information collected as a part of these surveys. The most important step in ensuring accurate results is developing a comprehensive population list from which to sample. Most NASS field offices have a list of equine operations that are classified as “farms,” which are defined as having annual sales of at least $1,000. However, a significant number of equine operations do not fit this definition (such as pleasure horse farms), so attempts must be made to identify and include those operations. Achieving this requires a multifaceted approach.

First, researchers can request membership lists from the state’s equine associations and organizations (realize that this often requires a vote by the organization’s board or membership). Second, since not all equine enthusiasts are members of organizations, additional efforts are required to reach these individuals. For the 2012 Kentucky Equine Survey, 34 public meetings were held across the state, often planned with the assistance of county Extension agents and held in conjunction with their equine-oriented programs. The meetings helped to contact these individuals, explain the importance and benefits of the study, and encourage them to submit their contact information to NASS. During this phase of the study, the partner groups (which usually include university and industry representatives) will also work with NASS to develop the questionnaire. NASS has a comprehensive questionnaire with standard questions, but some questions can be tailored to a state’s specific needs or interests. Providing the opportunity for survey suggestions from potential survey participants may also engender support or ‘buy-in” from the equine industry.

For the Kentucky Equine Survey, NASS mailed the questionnaires to a weighted, stratified random sample of equine operations in July 2012. T. Results were summarized and a final narrative completed in March 2013. Conducting a thorough and accurate state-wide equine study requires collaborative efforts of researchers and industry groups, ample time for planning, raising funds (the Kentucky Equine Survey budget was $600,000), data collection, and data analysis. From start to finish, expect the project to take about two years. However, these efforts are rewarded with accurate descriptive statistics that will benefit many groups, businesses, and individuals.

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It should be appreciated that the term ‘the virus’ is a generalisation and not a specific reflection of viral disease in horses. If you are considering breeding your horse you should be aware of this disease and how it can affect breeding status as well and your horse’s general health and well-being. Apart from having to dig out warmer jackets and heavier rugs both outdoor and indoor, it is also the time to think about worming your horse with one that will kill off those nasty small encysted strongyle larvae before they do any damage. The virus may also live in the environment for a couple of weeks and be spread on clothing, tack and yard equipment. Initially the virus multiplies within the upper respiratory tract (nasal passages, throat and trachea) and no clinical signs are evident, however, after a few days the virus causes inflammation of the cells lining the respiratory tract and the signs of infection can be seen. Although they may show no symptoms themselves, they can intermittently shed the virus and infect other horses in the area. The first is an expression and protection of the property owner’s legal rights, while the second imposes numerous legal duties and obligations on the guardian.

A horse at rest inhales and exhales about 6 to 8 liters of air with each breath. The mosquitoes may acquire the virus from affected birds. The second horse was vaccinated and asymptomatic. Eventually her owner saw sense and had her put down. TAT is an expensive drug that does not provide long term protection. Expenses, write-offs, and other deductions under federal and state tax laws, which are predicated upon horses being property and assets belonging to their owners, might no longer be available. EHV-1 causes liver damage and may affect the nervous system, causing recumbency (fatal cases have been reported in the US in 2005).

Your horse can be vaccinated against EHV, which will help prevent disease and reduce the amount of virus shed to in-contact horses. The most common viruses you’ll come across include equine herpes viruses which if left untreated can lead to all sorts of other health issues for your horse. One case of Taylorella equigenitalis infection was confirmed in France. The number of CEM-carrier animals detected in the USA since the disease was initially confirmed mid-December 2008 remains at 20 stallions, one gelding, and five mares. With one exception, all carrier stallions have been non-Thoroughbreds located at facilities specializing in semen collection for artificial insemination. No evidence exists of spread of CEM to the Thoroughbred population. The muscles surrounding the airways may tense up, limiting the airflow, and in the worst-case scenario the lungs will loose their elasticity and the alveoli will burst.

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is mainly affected by the harmful virus. The stallion was a European import and had not been bred after entry to the UK. The article says that there is not really much info on type of breeds affected but I know from having a ten year old pts with wobblers that horses with particular long necks, and geldings are more commonly affected with this complaint. We do offer a complimentary reminder service, but this service is reliant on computer systems and the postal service and is not foolproof – It is your responsibility to put the vaccination date on your calendar and to book an appointment in time for the vaccine due date. Single cases of EHV-1 neurologic disease were diagnosed on two premises in Ireland, and multiple cases of EHV-1 were reported on a third premises. One of the problems of relying on endoscopy is that pneumonic lung lesions are inclined to be missed, as are sterile conditions reducing total available breathing space. Equine herpesvirus-4 was responsible for three cases of abortion and two cases of respiratory disease in Ireland and one case of respiratory disease in the UK.

However, horses should be vaccinated against equine influenza as a matter of course in order to prevent the condition from affecting them and spreading to others. Spain reported five cases of influenza in Thoroughbreds, and Sweden recorded the disease on two premises. Influenza was diagnosed on eight premises in France involving multiple breeds; all were epidemiologically linked. The virus was closely related to the Ohio 2003 strain of H3N8 virus. Twenty-one cases of strangles in 10 separate outbreaks were recorded in Ireland; Sweden reported the disease on 28 premises, and it was confirmed in at least 30 horses on three premises in South Africa. The horse doesn’t experience pain. Better known as the Equine Rhinopneumonitis the disease is caused by the equine herpes virus type-1 (EHV-1).

Thirteen cases of abortion meeting the diagnostic criteria for Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS) were reported from Kentucky between May 5 and June 15: seven late-term abortions and six early fetal losses. I think sussexbythesea has been reading one of my replies! Recurrence of vesicular stomatitis (New Jersey serotype) was reported from the USA in June. Isolated cases of the disease were confirmed in equines on one premises in New Mexico and three in Texas. Great harm can be done by subjecting horses to work while suffering from systemic infections, however mild. Switzerland confirmed single cases of anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophila) and borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi) on separate premises. An outbreak of leptospirosis was reported from Turkey, characterized by mild disease in three Thoroughbreds on two premises.

South Korea confirmed an outbreak of enteritis due to Clostridium perfringens type A in foals on one premises. Fortunately, nitrate /nitrite poisoning is not a common problem in horses. However, due to serious and potentially fatal consequences of nitrate/nitrite poisoning, horse owners should be aware of the condition and understand the risk factors. Nitrate/nitrite poisoning in animals is caused by ingestion of excessive amounts of nitrate or nitrite from forages or weeds, nitrate containing fertilizers, or contaminated water. His stall must be clean, preferably with free access to an outside paddock. Strangles is caused by the bacteria known as Streptococus equi. Clinical signs may include difficulty breathing, weakness, tremors, ataxia, rapid heartbeat, grey/blue or brown discoloration of blood and tissues, seizures, and rapid death.

Vet suspected something neurological/arthritis of the mid to low back but turns out it has Kissing Spine,with bad ligament damage around KS affected area. While nitrate/nitrite poisoning can occur in any species, ruminants are most susceptible, due to efficient conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the rumen. Non-ruminant species such as horses are much less commonly affected because they do not readily convert nitrate to the more toxic nitrite. In the case of a single horse with chronic ‘viral’ problems, it is important to look at all factors that might influence resistance and so lead to what appears to be a long lasting infection. Hence, compared to ruminants, a much larger dosage of nitrate is required to cause clinical signs in horses. However, horses are very sensitive to nitrite. Ingestion of nitrite can occur when nitrates in forages or water have been converted to nitrite by environmental microbes prior to ingestion.

Documented cases of nitrate poisoning in horses are rare. Most cases involve ingestion of nitrate/nitrite-contaminated water, nitrate fertilizer directly, or forage or hay grown in the area of a previous fertilizer spill. A few cases in horses have occurred from ingestion of high nitrate hay that was baled wet or became wet after baling. A horse that has suffered from strangles once will almost certainly be immune for the rest of his life. Unfortunately, fatalities do generally occur in the equine family following infections from this disease, especially those which have not been exposed to preventative measures. No studies have been published that determine the amount of nitrate that horses can safely tolerate. However, studies suggest that horses, including pregnant mares, can tolerate considerably more dietary nitrate than can cattle.

Gluck Center
Chronic exposure to lower levels of nitrate has not been well researched in horses. Associations between chronic nitrate exposure and infertility, poor growth, hypothyroidism, and other disorders have been claimed, but none have been experimentally reproduced in horses, and much work remains to be done. A small amount of nitrate is normally found in all animals, including horses, as nitrate is a normal component of the plants they eat. Many factors can increase the risk of excessive nitrate accumulation in plants, including species of plant, stage of growth, fertilization practices, plant stress (drought, frost, hail, herbicide use), and many other factors. Nitrate accumulates primarily in plant stalks, less in leaves, and not in grains or fruits. Many important crop plants can accumulate nitrates, including oat plants, sorghum/sudan, and alfalfa. Nitrate-accumulating weeds include ragweeds, pigweed, and Johnson grass, to name just a few.

Although high-nitrate forages and weeds pose significant risks to ruminants, horses are rarely poisoned by these plants unless they have been grown on sites of previous fertilizer spills or nitrates have been converted to nitrite by environmental microbes. Treatment of affected animals is possible, but timing is critical, as animals can die very quickly. Prevention is key, and for horses includes the following: ensure that fertilizers are used as directed and stored safely away from animals; thoroughly clean up any spills; do not apply excessive fertilizer to pasture or hay fields; never use tanks that previously contained fertilizer to haul water, even if tanks have been washed; do not bale hay when it is too wet or allow hay to become wet during storage; and do not feed moldy or wet hay. It’s important to have suspect forages or water tested for nitrate and nitrite concentrations before animals are exposed. Contact an appropriate laboratory, such as the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center, for sampling protocols and testing services. One of the most often used and least understood immunological terms is antibody titer. But what does titer mean, and how can this information be used in assessing the immune status of a horse?

A titer is defined as the concentration of specific antibodies in the blood that recognize a particular agent, such as equine influenza virus. The titer is determined by serially diluting the serum fraction of blood and assaying (testing) each dilution for the antibody of interest (for example, equine influenza virus antibodies). The last dilution of a serum sample that responds in the assay determines the titer. The greater the concentration of the specific antibody in the serum sample, the higher the titer. For example, a titer for an influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay of 1:10 would be very low; a titer of 1:320 would be high. A low or undetectable titer indicates very little antibody present in the serum. ▪ Animal exposure to pathogen: Prior to exposure, the antibody titer is very low or undetectable.

Following exposure, the immune system produces antibodies, resulting in an increase in the titer. A rising antibody titer in paired sera samples collected two to four weeks apart provides evidence for exposure to the agent. This evidence is particularly useful when it is not possible to identify the agent, such as Neorickettsia risticii (Potomac horse fever). ▪ Vaccine efficacy: In the case of some infectious diseases (for example, equine influenza virus), protection from infection often requires that a certain antibody titer (determined experimentally) be obtained following vaccination. This information is then used to formulate vaccines so that they stimulate the necessary antibody response and achieve the desired titer. Since antibody titers decay over time, re-vaccination is necessary to boost the titer back to these protective levels. Can titer levels be used to determine when it is necessary to vaccinate horses?

While this might seem to be more efficient, several factors preclude the use of such an approach. The major impediment is that for many infectious diseases, the protective titer is not known precisely enough to make a vaccination decision. With rabies, animals with very low or undetectable titers to the virus may actually be protected from infection, but the assay lacks sufficient sensitivity to register the immunity. In contrast, EHV-1 has no known level of antibody that accurately predicts protection. This lack of correlation between antibody titer and protection is likely due to the fact that cell-mediated immune responses are more important in preventing some infectious diseases. Currently it is not possible to determine a numerical measure of protection provided by cell-mediated immunity. Even for those diseases in which protective antibody titers can be determined, the time and costs associated with performing these assays currently makes this approach impractical.

Further, the time-dependent decay in antibody titers following vaccination is fairly predictable, meaning that regular revaccination schedules can be developed without having to determine titers. Nevertheless, future developments in veterinary immunology may lead to an increased use of titer information in the development of vaccine recommendations. The introduction of a damaging animal disease like foot-and-mouth could devastate American animal agriculture, harm the economy, and, for zoonotic reasons, threaten the public’s health. Having enough resources for a rapid response is crucial. The National Veterinary Stockpile (NVS), part of the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Veterinary Services, exists to provide states, tribes, and U.S. territories the resources they need to respond to 17 of the most serious animal disease threats (see sidebar). Operational since 2006, the NVS holds large quantities of veterinary countermeasures that can be deployed anywhere in the United States within 24 hours.

These include packages of personal protective equipment and decontamination supplies, poultry depopulation foaming units, carbon dioxide poultry depopulation carts, avian influenza vaccine for poultry, and antiviral medications for agricultural responders. Commercial support services can deploy within 24 hours to help depopulate, dispose of, and decontaminate animals. Management of these resources during an ongoing animal disease outbreak is critical. State and local authorities should engage in a continuous cycle of planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating, and taking corrective action to achieve and maintain readiness. The APHIS NVS team assists states, tribes, and U.S. territories to plan the request, receipt, storage, control, issue, staging, and distribution of NVS countermeasures. Planning tools such as the NVS Planning Guide for Federal, State, and Local Authorities v2 and the Template for a State NVS Plan are now available on the NVS Web site.

Training and exercising complement preparedness planning. Training ensures that individuals and logistics teams know what to do during a response, and exercises test their effectiveness and identify necessary improvements. The NVS team collaborates with state and tribal jurisdictions to implement and evaluate their NVS plans through discussion-based and operations-based exercises. The following states and regions have participated in NVS exercises: North Carolina (2006), Georgia (2006), Iowa (2007), Delaware (2007), California (2008), South Carolina (2008), and New England (2008). Regional NVS preparedness of the Multi-State Partnership for Security in Agriculture and Canada was evaluated in June of 2009 during four concurrent NVS deployments to Kentucky, Illinois, Nebraska, and Canada. The first USDA APHIS tabletop exercise between federal, state, and tribal partners on tribal lands will evaluate Arizona and Navajo Nation NVS planning in August 2009. The yearly incidence of equine leptospiral abortion varies based on environmental conditions, the number of susceptible horses in the population, and the frequency of contact with chronically infected animals and their waste products.

Sixteen cases of equine leptospiral abortion have been diagnosed at the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center since the last update in the July 2007 issue of the Equine Disease Quarterly. This report provides a brief review of cases diagnosed during the 2008 and 2009 foaling years. For reporting purposes, a foaling year is 365 days after July 1; for example, July 1, 2008-June 30, 2009 is the 2009 foaling year. The 16 leptospiral abortions (six in 2008 and 10 in 2009) diagnosed during the 2008-2009 foaling years (Figure 1) is a substantial decrease from the 42 leptospiral abortions observed in central Kentucky during the 2007 foaling year. Abortions occurred during the last half of gestation and were identified from October to February (Figure 2). Thirteen individual farms experienced leptospiral abortions. A single abortion was diagnosed on 10 farms, and three farms were diagnosed with two abortions each.

Leptospiral abortions were diagnosed in Thoroughbred and Paint horses over this two-year time period. Affected mares generally do not display clinical signs prior to abortion, but aborted fetuses may exhibit the following: yellow discoloration, regions of hemorrhage, enlarged kidneys and liver, and placental lesions. A diagnosis of leptospiral abortion can be made based on pathologic lesions and at least one of the following: a positive culture, detection of leptospiral DNA by polymerase chain reaction, fetal serology, visualization of the bacterium by a fluorescent antibody test, silver stain, or immunohistochemistry. A high antibody titer greater than or equal to 1:12,800 in a mare that has recently aborted is also highly suggestive of leptospiral abortion. Leptospirosis remains an important cause of equine disease and abortion worldwide. Historically, serovar Kennewicki is most commonly associated with abortion in central Kentucky; however, serovar prevalence varies by country and region. Leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in fetuses aborted from mid- to late gestation, stillborn fetuses, or weak-born foals.

No licensed vaccine is available for horses.

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