The performance of locally produced human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells was shown to be superior to human foreskin fibroblast (SF) and HEp-2 cells for the isolation of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) from clinical specimens. The expression of potential HIV target cells and C-type lectin receptors in foreskin tissue of men at risk of HIV infection were thus analyzed. Time-addition experiments suggested that the active compounds present in the studied fractions acted on early steps of the virus replication cycle. Following infection of human foreskin fibroblasts by HSV-1 or HSV-2, we assayed the phosphorylation of H2AX in the presence of inhibitors of transcription, translation, or viral DNA replication, or in the presence of inhibitors of ATM and ATR kinases (KU-55933 and VE-821, respectively). We also assayed viral replication in fibroblasts in the presence of the kinase inhibitors or siRNAs specific for ATM and ATR, as well as in cell lines deficient for either ATR or ATM. The recalls and replacements cracked cost the company around 429 million. Only a doctor can make a diagnosis after a check-up.
Virol., 77: 1524-1539, 2003). Inhibition of the closely related kinase ATR (whether by chemical inhibitor or siRNA disruption) had no effect on H2AX phosphorylation and reduced viral DNA replication only moderately. During infection by HSV-2, H2AX phosphorylation was similarly dispensable but was dependent on both ATM activity and viral DNA replication.