Herpes simplex virus type 2 and heterosexual spread of human immunodeficiency virus infection in developing countries: hypotheses and research priorities – Mbopi-Keou –

Herpes simplex virus type 2 and heterosexual spread of human immunodeficiency virus infection in developing countries: hypotheses and research priorities - Mbopi-Keou -

Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Randomized controlled trials have investigated whether acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic drug designed to suppress herpes viruses, might provide an inexpensive and safe way to drastically reduce HIV-1 spreading around the world. During March to May 2006, 23 preterm pediatric patients developed nosocomial pneumonia in a district hospital … 2010 Nov;48(11):4094-101. Women who have active herpes infections are more likely to pass the virus on to their babies during a vaginal birth. Hence, to study the significance of VP22 phosphorylation, we have now constructed two recombinant viruses expressing green fluorescent protein-VP22 (G22) in which the previously identified serine phosphorylation sites have been mutated either to alanine to abolish the phosphorylation status of VP22 (G22P−) or to glutamic acid to mimic permanent phosphorylation (G22P+). In the absence of Ca2+, the number of FX-binding sites on the wild-type virus was similar to the gC-deficient strain in the presence of Ca2+.

Moreover, treatment or healing of GUD was accompanied by a decrease in HIV shedding [47]. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. However, the infecting organism may invade the blood stream and progress to infection of the fetus. There is also evidence that: (1) among ‘asymptomatically’ HSV-2-infected patients (i.e. in the absence of visible ulcer), HSV-2 genital shedding is increased in HIV positives [17,34]; and (2) both HIV RNA and HSV-2 DNA shedding are increased in the presence of the other virus [34]. [et al.] Mumps is back : why is mumps eradication not working? We report a case of a 5-year-old girl with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) who was treated with adenine arabinoside (ara-A).

[56] reported that co-infection of human CD4+ cells with HSV and HIV results in accelerated replication of HIV. Advances in the diagnosis and management of central venous access device infections in children / Asha Bowen and Jonathan Carapetis. [57] found that the upregulation of HIV-1 expression was induced by HSV, and this may translate to increased plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Their study documented in vivo reciprocal enhancement of viral replication associated with the co-infection of keratinocytes and macrophages by HIV-1 and HSV-1 in patients with AIDS and HSV lesions. Antiviral drug therapy shortens the duration of lesions and reduces their recurrence. No changes were made in the methodology of collection of laboratory specimens or rapid virus culture techniques during the study period. Furthermore, Rando et al.

[58] showed that HIV long-terminal repeat (HIV LTR) is activated by herpesviruses as measured by HIV LTR-directed expression of the acetyltransferase gene (CAT). Rates of neonatal herpes are highest in neonates born to recently HSV-infected women who were seronegative pre-pregnancy [6]. Then set up a personal list of libraries from your profile page by clicking on your user name at the top right of any screen. However, the evidence is inconclusive, and more studies of the effect of episodic HSV-2 therapy on HIV are needed, especially in developing countries. … 26: 2224 (1988). in English) 2015 Jun 26 ABSTRACT- …The incorporation of the dF-EdU into DNA depends on its phosphorylation by a herpes virus thymidine kinase (TK).
Herpes simplex virus type 2 and heterosexual spread of human immunodeficiency virus infection in developing countries: hypotheses and research priorities - Mbopi-Keou -

In a case–control study of Thai military conscripts, HSV antibodies were three times more common in HIV seroconverters than in men who remained HIV negative (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2–7.9) [68]. The second cohort study, also in Thailand military conscripts, found a fourfold increase, which was statistically significant, in the relative risk of HIV seroconversion among those who were HSV seropositive [69]. While genital HSV-1 infections can result from genital-genital and oral-genital contact with an infected person who is actively shedding virus, oral-genital contact appears to account for most genital HSV-1 infections [7, 8]. A study of STD patients in New York did not find increased HIV seroconversion to be associated with HSV infection [67]. trachomatis to neonatal ophthalmic … Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. This is because a newly infected mother does not have antibodies against the virus, so there is no natural protection for the baby during birth.

In particular, our studies have revealed that the level of phosphate present on VP22 alters the expression and localization of ICP0 in the infected cell and affects the replication of HSV-1 in epithelial MDBK cells. sgC with a pentahistidine tag was produced in a baculovirus expression system as described previously [28] (kindly provided by Dr Gary Cohen and Dr Roselyn Eisenberg, University of Pennsylvania). also found an association between HIV acquisition and HSV-2 seropositivity [63]. Janier M, Scieux C, Meouchi R, et al. gondii who were without signs of disease at birth is equally disturbing. Seroconversion studies are likely to underestimate the effect of HSV-2 on HIV transmission. First, HSV causes a chronic disease, and recurrences decrease over time.

Second, HSV seropositivity does not correlate well with clinical episodes. Third, the methods used to measure HSV are often insensitive. Finally, there is often failure to adjust for the usual confounders, such as sexual behavior or other STDs. Epidemiologic data showing an association between HIV and HSV-2 seropositivity in Africa have been scarce [30,33,34]. A multicenter study assessed parameters which could explain the heterogeneity of HIV epidemics in four African cities characterized either by high HIV prevalences (20–30% in Kisumu, Kenya and in Ndola, Zambia) or by low HIV prevalences (3–8% in Cotonou, Benin and in Yaounde, Cameroon) [70]. This study showed an association between HIV and HSV-2 infection [70]. HSV-2 may be an important cofactor in the spread of HIV since, based on epidemiological evidence, individuals with a history of recurrent genital herpes lesions are up to six-times more likely to contract HIV [40,41].

The authors are aware that there are limitations in this study. Weiss et al. showed a strong association between HSV-2 prevalence and seropositivity for HIV (OR 5–10) after adjustment for sexual behavior [70]. Another study of 2397 adults in Harare, Zimbabwe showed an HSV-2 prevalence of 39.8%, and an incidence of seroconversion for HSV-2 of 6.2 persons/year, without a clear association with the risk of seroconversion for HIV [71]. The demonstration of any bi-directional and/or synergistic interactions between STDs and HIV infection, added to the fact that HIV infection is an STD, has direct public-health implications [29]. Intervention studies in Africa [29] and in Thailand [72], combining preventive interventions and treatment of STDs, demonstrated that it may be possible to reduce the incidence of HIV infection in the developing world. …

159: 1251–1255 (1988). PMID:25600604 Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 2015 Feb ABSTRACT- …Our clinical and microbiological data suggest that severe HSV-1 infection is the driver of periodontal inflammation in this case. The Schacker study on 12 men in Seattle is the only study to have documented that treatment or healing of GUD caused by HSV-2 was associated with a reduction of HIV shedding. Even in this instance, it was unclear whether the effect was spontaneous or due to any specific intervention [47].

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