The most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the US, Chlamydia is more common among people 15-25 years of age. Although saliva has been pointed out as the main route of virus transmission, mostly in populations in areas where the virus is endemic, semen, blood, urine, and stool have also been suggested as vehicles of virus transmission-acquisition in populations at risk of infection, such as homosexual males and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-AIDS patients (4, 5, 11). Both types can infect the genital and anal area (genital herpes), the mouth and nose and fingers and hand (whitlows). The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA in urine, plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of renal transplant recipients. Chlamydia is usually transmitted through sexual contact (oral, vaginal, or anal) with an infected partner. Then, using PCR, sequencing, and other molecular approaches, they evaluated blood and several oral samples from KS patients and their relatives and identified the HHV-8 subtypes named B1, A2, and A5 that circulate in Malawi. The symptoms normally get better by themselves, and the virus then becomes inactive and remains in the body.
Samples were also collected from 37 organ donors and 30 healthy individuals as the control groups of the study. RPR, Qualitative – tests for the bacterium that causes syphilis, Treponema pallidum. Using PCR and sequencing of open reading frame (ORF) 26 and K1/V1, they detected HHV-8 DNA in 6.4% of urine samples (5 of 78 samples), identified monotypic virus in urine and multitypic virus in saliva, and pointed out urine as another site of virus shedding (2). The shedding phase is the stage in which the infection can be passed from person to person through bodily fluids and sexual contact. Discrimination between HSV-1 and HSV-2 amplicons were performed using restriction enzymes AvaI and AvaII. Hepatitis A Antibody IgM Blood Test IgM anti-HAV antibodies indicate a recent infection with the hepatitis A virus. On the basis of clinical and epidemiological data, we may speculate that these patients were recently infected with HHV-8 or had KS at sites not yet identified.
HSV-1 DNA was only determined in urine samples of 19% of transplant recipients. HSV-2 DNA however, was not detected in any group of subjects including renal transplant recipients. About 8 to 12 weeks after the initial infection with hepatitis A virus, IgG anti-HAV antibodies will appear and will remain in the blood for lifelong protection (immunity) against HAV. Additional investigations, including the determination of viral load using real-time PCR and primers for different regions of the HHV-8 genome, are needed to solve this question. Although the impact of HSV related disease in renal transplant patients is not well understood and prospective studies are needed to elucidate this further but HSV-DNA PCR in urine or blood samples may be helpful in monitoring and detection of possible related infections and thus, initiate an efficient therapy.