Infectious mononucleosis: How it is transmitted or spread?

Infectious mononucleosis: How it is transmitted or spread?

The median age of the patients was 13 years (range, 8 months-18 years), 70% were female. The Epstein-Barr virus is one of a number of infectious agents known as herpes viruses. The classic triad of symptoms characterizing cases of IM includes fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy. Scientifically, EBV is classified as a member of the herpesvirus family. In children the signs of the disease are very minimal hence hardly noticeable. However, even after the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis have disappeared, the EBV stays in a person’s cells forever. The virus has an incubation period of approximately four to six weeks, although in young children this period may be shorter.

Once a person gets mononucleosis, the virus says inactive in the body for the rest of his or her life. Once a person has had mononucleosis, the virus remains dormant in the throat and blood cells for the rest of that person’s life. Mononucleosis is often spread by contact with infected saliva (spit). Mononucleosis is often spread through contact with infected saliva from the mouth. Though the workout was admittedly intense, I came home and felt more tired than normal; a heavy fatigue weighed my limbs down. It usually takes four to eight weeks for symptoms to develop after you are infected. In adolescents and adults, the infection causes noticeable symptoms in 35 to 50 percent of cases.

Infectious mononucleosis: How it is transmitted or spread?
Most other symptoms disappear within a few weeks, but the fatigue can last for weeks, even months. Although antiviral therapy may inhibit EBV replication in vitro and decrease shedding in the oropharynx, there is no benefit with respect to reducing clinical findings or complications.22 Therefore, in immunocompetent persons, antivirals are not recommended for the treatment of IM. Saliva is the primary method of transmitting mono, which leads to the infection of B lymphocytes in the mouth and throat. The general signs of a sore throat which includes redness of throat and irritation when swallowing food may result in Infectious Mononucleosis itself. It typically takes between four to eight weeks for symptoms of mono to appear after the initial infection with EBV. A person with mono can also pass the disease by coughing or sneezing, causing small droplets of infected saliva and/or mucus to be suspended in the air which can be inhaled by others. Anyone who regularly comes into close contact with large numbers of people is at an increased risk for mono.

This is why high school and college students frequently become infected. Self-care is usually all that is needed if you have mono. Unless you have a serious complication of mono (which rarely occurs), no medicine or treatment will speed your recovery. Doctors can also test your liver enzymes, which are heightened by the virus, and can show whether your liver is inflamed. There are many steps you can take to ease the symptoms until you are back to normal. Listen to your body. Don’t push yourself when you have mono.

Pharyngitis is a less prominent symptom of CMV IM compared with EBV infection, and complications such as splenic rupture are likewise less common. Rest in bed. You probably won’t feel like working or going to school anyway, and rest is very important. Avoid contact sports and heavy lifting for several weeks after you become ill with mono (or until a doctor tells you it is okay) to reduce the risk of injuring your spleen. Take acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) or ibuprofen (such as Advil) to reduce fever and to relieve a headache and sore throat. Do not give aspirin to anyone under the age of 20, because its use has been linked with Reye syndrome, a serious illness. Be safe with medicines.

Read and follow all instructions on the label. Soothe your sore throat with cool liquids and saltwater gargles [1 tsp (5 g) of salt in 8 fl oz (237 mL) of warm water]. With mono in particular, it’s extremely important to give yourself proper rest, even though you may be frustrated at your significant decline in productivity. If your child has a sore throat, candy or lozenges are okay if he or she is at least 4 years old. And most children can gargle at age 8 and older. Drink plenty of fluids, especially if you have a fever. HIV.

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