Pneumonia : an infection in one or both of your lungs that can be caused by several kinds of germs, such as: Bacteria; viruses; fungi (molds) (uncommon). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is the leading cause of death in children worldwide it kills 1.5million children under the age of five every year (WHO, 2012). The objective of treatment is to stop the virus from copying in the body through the use of antiviral drugs. Although individuals may start to feel better shortly after beginning the medication, healthcare professionals recommend completing the entire course of antibiotics. Viral infections. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. The term double pneumonia means both lungs are affected.
The diagnostic difficulties in this patient underline the importance of early recognition of viral infection as a potential cause of severe pneumonia in severely ill, immunocompromised patients. Use the appropriate antimicrobial for an infection; e.g. Pneumonia is spread by close person-to-person contact, usually when an infected person coughs or sneezes on another person. Viral pneumonias may be caused by influenza, varicella-zoster, herpes, or adenoviruses. Drink plenty of fluids to help loosen secretions and bring up phlegm. Valentine VG, Bonvillain BS, Gupta MR, Lombard GA, La Place SG, Dhillon GS, Wang G. Although most of these people recover, approximately 5% will die from pneumonia.
Streaks of blood may be seen in the phlegm. Pneumonia is triggered when an individual’s defense system is weakened, most often by a simple viral upper respiratory tract infection or a case of influenza. When we swallow food or drink or regurgitate (vomit) something up, the epiglottis closes to ensure that these substances don’t get to the lungs. Blood tests may be used to assess the severity of illness and may include a white blood cell count (markedly elevated or abnormally low counts may indicate more severe illness). In most severe cases, the patient may experience shaking/chills, chattering teeth, severe chest pains, sweats, cough that produces rust colored or greenish mucus, increased breathing and pulse rate, and bluish colored lips or nails due to a lack of oxygen. Carey, Y. Carmeli, M.
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Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria…. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Vol 8, Iss. can be the first sign of illness in people with HIV. Retrieved 16 August 2014. ^ Boucher, HW, Talbot GH, Bradley JS, Edwards JE, Gilvert D, Rice LB, Schedul M., Spellberg B., Bartlett J. With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia can be cured within one to two weeks. The patient is taught hand hygiene and encouraged to wash hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand wipe entirely over both hands after blowing the nose, coughing, using the bathroom, or eating or drinking.
An update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America”. Botha P, Archer L, Anderson RL, Lordan J, Dark JH, Corris PA, Gould K, Fisher AJ. During the exam, the doctor will listen to the lungs with a stethoscope to check for abnormal bubbling or crackling sounds and for rumblings that signal the presence of thick liquid. Generally, however, the use of antibiotics has improved the outcome greatly. A chest X-ray is usually used to confirm the presence of pneumonia and to determine the extent and location of the infection. Br. J.
Complications The seriousness of pneumonia depends on the individuals overall health and the type and severity of the pneumonia. 153 Suppl 1: S347–57. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707607. PMC 2268074. PMID 18193080. ^ Li XZ, Nikaido H (August 2009). “Efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria: an update”.
Drugs 69 (12): 1555–623. doi:10.2165/11317030-000000000-00000. PMC 2847397. PMID 19678712. ^ Stix G (April 2006). Most people with pneumonia will make a full recovery, although a feeling of tiredness may persist for some time after. Sci.
Am. Treatment Bacterial pneumonia: Antibiotics: Doctors use antibiotics to treat pneumonia caused by bacteria, the most common cause of the condition. The cause is usually unknown; occasionally, the condition responds to the administration of corticosteroids. PMID 16596883. [Abstract] Ridgeway AI, Warner GS, Phillips P, Forshag MS, McGriffin DC, Harden JW, Harris RH, Benjamin WH, Zorn GL, Dunlap NE. Stopping medication too soon may cause the pneumonia to return. Adv.
Antibiotics used for bacterial pneumonia include: macrolides, such as erythromycin (Ery-Tab®), clarithromycin (Biaxin® or Biaxin XL®), and azithromycin (Zithromax®); tetracyclines, such as doxycycline (Vibramycin®, Doryx®); and fluoroquinolones, such as levofloxacin (Levaquin®) and moxifloxacin (Vigamox®). 2(2). pp: 46-47 ^ Howden BP, Slavin MA, Schwarer AP, Mijch AM (February 2003). A serious, but less common side effect of vancomycin (Vancocin®) can be loss of hearing. Eur. J. Clin.
Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22 (2): 111–3. doi:10.1007/s10096-002-0877-z. PMID 12627286. ^ Doliwa C, Escotte-Binet S, Aubert D, Velard F, Schmid A, Geers R, Villena I.
Induction of sulfadiazine resistance in vitro in Toxoplasma gondii.Exp Parasitol. 2013 Feb;133(2):131-6. ^ Laurenson YC, Bishop SC, Forbes AB, Kyriazakis I.Modelling the short- and long-term impacts of drenching frequency and targeted selective treatment on the performance of grazing lambs and the emergence of antihelmintic resistance.Parasitology. 2013 Feb 1:1-12.