Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Phone: (212) 241-7318; Fax: (212) 722-3634; E-mail: email@example.com. At 30 days of age, ducks were challenged with one of two H5N1 HPAI viruses: A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-2721/2013 (clade 1.1.2) or A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-1584/2012 (clade 220.127.116.11.C). Numbers at each node represent the posterior probabilities (values > 90 are shown) of the Bayesian analysis. Recent studies with herpes simplex viruses (HSV) have demonstrated immunogenicity with glycoprotein vaccines; however, these studies have also highlighted their failure to reduce seroconversion to HSV-2 in high-risk populations. They were most interested in cells called CD8 killer T-cells. This immunological shift towards antibodies has never been seen before for such primate herpesvirus-based vaccines, where responses are always associated with large T cell responses and poor to no antibodies.
In mice, it induced production of specific HSV-2 antibodies and splenocytes secreting IFNγ or IL-5. “Although we will definitely need to explore this finding further, it suggests that we may be able to bias immunity towards either antibodies or T cells based on the time of target antigen production. Vaccination has been one of the most important interventions designed to prevent disease to be employed on a worldwide basis, second only to the improvement of sanitation services and the provision of clean drinking water. Perhaps the most frightening example is AIDS, with its devastating effect on millions of people throughout the world. Although the present study administered the vaccine by direct inoculation, a CMV-based vaccine that can spread from animal to animal may be one approach to protect such inaccessible wild animal populations that are not amenable to vaccination by conventional approaches. The current study is a step forward, not only for conventional Ebola virus vaccines for use in humans, but also in the development of such ‘self-disseminating vaccines’ to target Ebola in great apes, and other emerging infectious diseases in their wild animal host before they fully establish themselves in humans.