New Vaccine Against Herpes Viruses

New Vaccine Against Herpes Viruses

Scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY, have designed a new type of vaccine that could be the first-ever for preventing genital herpes—one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, affecting some 500 million people worldwide. Med… A clinical study in 35 HSV-2 infected patients showed that AG707 was well tolerated. The study authors isolated a new class of drugs capable of killing Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), both in the lab and in mice, when used with conventional antibiotics. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. Louis, Mo., and colleagues. DNA vaccination (or genetic vaccination) is an exciting novel immunization approach which was introduced a more than decade ago and became an extremely fast growing field in vaccine technology.

Avoid close physical contact with others (such as kissing) during an outbreak until the cold sores have completely healed. The vaccine, being developed with CEL-SCI Corp, “is working and it looks promising,” says Rosenthal, a professor of microbiology and immunology at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. It causes a question of moral ethics and motives. However, the scientists in this study realized that this method was to date not very effective, and instead actually knocked the gene encoding for glycoprotein D out of the virus. hover around 15 to 20 percent, HSV-2 is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, where nearly three in four women have contracted the virus, contributing significantly to the region’s HIV epidemic. Certain plants like poison ivy, poison sumac and poison oak cause rashes to appear on the skin when a person comes into contact with one of these plants. Using animal models of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, researchers show that blocking the activity of a host cell protein called LSD1 reduces HSV infection, shedding (release of viral particles) and recurrence.

The Heart Truth is a national campaign for women about heart disease and is sponsored by the NHLBI. However, a recent paper by Yale professor Akiko Iwasaki and postdoctoral fellow Haina Shin published in Nature reports a promising new vaccine strategy termed “prime and pull” that could easily and effectively protect against the main cause of genital herpes, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). gD also elicits a vigorous antibody response that many in the field believe is necessary to produce immunity. Comparison of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of genital herpes vaccine candidates herpes simplex virus 2 dl5-29 and dl5-29-41L in mice and guinea pigs. In extending the use of a genital herpes vaccine to prevent other HSV diseases, it will be important to consider the impact of asymptomatic infection on the natural history of these illnesses. It put its pneumococcal vaccine on the back burner last October after discouraging topline Phase II results. Though it was not necessarily obvious beforehand, “once we had this mutant in our hands,” Herold says, “it was a logical, scientifically driven hypothesis to say, ‘This strain would be 100 percent safe and might elicit a very different immune response than the gD subunit vaccines that have been tried.’” The hypothesis followed from the increasing understanding that, in addition to its critical role in viral entry, gD also has the ability to change the host immune response.
New Vaccine Against Herpes Viruses

In order to test the gD deletion virus as a vaccine, the researchers grew the virus in a cell line that expresses the HSV-1 version of gD. Original Article from The New England Journal of Medicine CaseControl Study of Human Papillomavirus and Oropharyngeal Cancer. That gives us a better promising candidates for new herpes virus treatments. Once inside, HSV-2 replicated abundantly, but because it could not produce gD, future progeny were unable to infect new cells. According to Herold, infected cells then became “little factories for making viral proteins” that spurred the immune system to produce antibodies to HSV-2. The vaccine completely immunized two common strains of lab mice against HSV-2 when challenged with virus intravaginally or on the skin. In fact, no virus could be detected in vaginal washes four days post-challenge and even more importantly, no virus could be found in the nerve tissue, the site where HSV often hides in a latent form only to emerge later to cause disease.

Protection against HSV-1, which shares considerable homology with HSV-2, was also demonstrated in both models. The vaccine produced no adverse health effects in a strain of mice with severely compromised immune systems, reflecting the vaccine’s overall safety. Blood serum passively transferred from immunized mice was found to protect wild-type mice, providing a powerful demonstration of the vaccine’s efficacy. We initially demonstrated that DNA immunization of DHBV-carriers ducks to virus large envelope protein resulted in a marked drop of viremia, associated with significant decrease in intrahepatic viral replication and even viral cccDNA clearance in some animals (8). Another of the vaccine’s surprises is how it works. Many vaccines provoke the production of so-called neutralizing antibodies that directly bind and inactivate virus particles. The new vaccine, however, induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in which antibodies attach to a virus and flag it for destruction by immune system sentinels such as white blood cells.

Further evidence that the vaccine triggers ADCC comes from the observation that they lost protection when the immune serum was transferred into mice in which FcϒR, a protein known to facilitate ADCC, is knocked out. As to why vaccines based on gD never worked, the team thinks that gD, which elicits a strong neutralizing immune response, may have actually been overwhelming the immune system to the extent that the immune system did not see other components of the virus or gD interfered with the ability to evoke ADCC. Aloe vera gel is excellent for reducing inflammation, itching and redness caused by poison ivy. “It has multiple immune evasion strategies and this is one of many.” With gD knocked out, the immune system was able to react effectively to the virus’s less dominant components. The successful implementation of a vaccine based on ADCC could have profound implications for other infections. “It’s possible we could clone into this HSV vector pieces of other viruses, such as HIV, and maybe the immune system would produce the same types of ADCC antibodies for those viruses,” Herold says. The robust response generated by the vaccine, as well as its novel mechanism, has the researchers undertaking additional experiments in mice to determine whether it can be used to treat individuals already infected by HSV-1 and HSV-2.

The next step for the researchers in producing a herpes vaccine for use in humans is demonstrating its efficacy and safety in an FDA-approved cell line. 7, Released virus infects epithelial cells and replicates further.

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