Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a family of innate receptors that recognize and respond to a wide spectrum of microorganisms, including fungi, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. A novel class of immunomodulatory microbicides has shown promise as antiherpetics, including intravaginally applied CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides that stimulate toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Compartmentalized neuron cultures revealed that mature sensory neurons respond to IFNβ at both the axon and cell body through distinct mechanisms, resulting in control of HSV-1. Here we report that production of beta interferon (IFN-β) but not production of IFN-α, IFN-γ, or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) strongly correlates with innate protection against HSV-2. Hanes also is a principal investigator with the Johns Hopkins Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a “zero” moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication. Whereas LTβ−/− mice maintain both the cervical and mesenteric LNs,10, 13 LTα−/− mice lack all LNs, including mucosal ones.10 LTα−/− mice have also been shown to have significantly disorganized lymphoid structures within the spleen.
The construction of HVT BAC is a major step in understanding the functions of HVT genes by exploiting the power of BAC technology. In this system, though the IFN-treated nude mice survived significantly longer than the controls, they finally died. In this system, though the IFN-treated nude mice survived significantly longer than the controls, they finally died. In antibody- or acyclovir (ACV)-treated nude mice, there was also a prolongation of survival time as compared with control mice. The effect of antibody was enhanced by the addition of IFN, but IFN did not potentiate the effect of ACV.