Provision of Test Results and Posttest Counseling at STD Clinics in 24 Health Departments: U.S., 2007

Provision of Test Results and Posttest Counseling at STD Clinics in 24 Health Departments: U.S., 2007

Please “jelp” you? Approximately five (5) clinics will participate in the study. More about NIAID Research on Genital Herpes Cause Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). “Why??? I have had 2 outbreaks, almost 3 months apart, both right before my period. The newly identified HIV positivity among all testers was 0.7%. One of the main goals of HIV counseling and testing is to inform people of their HIV status, because knowledge of one’s HIV-positive serostatus can result in a reduction in risk behaviors and allow the person to access HIV medical care and treatment.

Hi, I was just wondering how long is the usual wait time for the results on blood work from planned parenthood? A Program Director or an approved supervisor must approve before any intake is closed as a PN. The current provider was initially selected via the competitive RPF process. “We think devices like these will be technically feasible in a matter of 2-3 years,” but evaluating their accuracy, impact, and potential dangers before getting them approved for general use could take several years more. HIV Std Test Results Time Frame COUNSELING AND TESTING. How Long Should I Wait? Although CDC recommended that all health departments collect and report test-level data (i.e., files with data on individual tests), aggregate-level data (i.e., tables of summary counts of information) were accepted in 2007 from 29 of 59 CDC-funded health departments without the sufficient resources or infrastructure to report test-level data to the HIV CTS.

Because coinfection with HIV and one or more other STDs is common, all persons with a diagnosis of HIV should be tested for other types of STDs, and vice versa; rates of coinfection with HIV and syphilis have been particularly high in recent years. All HIV CT data reported to CDC do not include personal identifiers, making it impossible to link any test to a client; therefore, the HIV test data represent tests rather than individuals. However, it is necessary to know that though modern diagnostic methods are used, tests are not always 100 per cent accurate. There were five inclusion criteria for this analysis. First, only HIV tests from the 30 health departments reporting test-level data in 2007 were included. Second, only HIV tests reported from the STD clinic site type were included (24 health departments). Third, each test must have had a valid value for the HIV test result variable (i.e., negative, positive, inconclusive, or no result).

Fourth, each test must have been conducted among adolescents and adults aged 13–98 years to mirror the lower age limit of the CDC recommendations and allow for inclusion of older adults seeking HIV testing at STD clinics. Fifth, each test must have been conducted for people who were not previously diagnosed with HIV by self-report. Demographic characteristics included gender, age at time of HIV testing, race/ethnicity (i.e., non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and other), and the state or city in which the HIV test was conducted. These states and cities included California (excluding San Francisco and Los Angeles), Chicago (Illinois), Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania (excluding Philadelphia), Rhode Island, San Francisco, South Carolina, Texas (excluding Houston), Utah, and Virginia. HIV risks were elicited at the time of HIV testing. Learn about pregnancy. The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution requires that the caseworker must have consent, a court order or exigent circumstances to enter a home.

“Requested an HIV test” was defined as a record that had documentation of requesting an HIV test as the reason for the visit. “Current HIV test” result was dichotomized to positive test results and negative and other test results (i.e., inconclusive and no result). Made it well worth the time. We use Std Testing Time After Exposure Gold Standard tests in. “Provision of posttest counseling” referred to whether the record had documentation that test results and posttest counseling were provided to the client specific to the current HIV test. Although health department program managers are the primary intended audience, information in this report might be beneficial for HIV-prevention community planning groups, STD program advisory bodies, trainers and providers of technical assistance, community-based organizations (CBOs), clinical care providers, and others with an interest in partner services. We used SAS® version 9.2 to calculate and analyze HIV positivity, newly identified HIV positivity, and percentage of tests with documentation of posttest counseling, by demographic and HIV-related characteristics.25 Some of the 29 health departments excluded from the analysis were in the process of transitioning to a new set of testing variables, which were not equivalent to the HIV CTS variables.

Provision of Test Results and Posttest Counseling at STD Clinics in 24 Health Departments: U.S., 2007
Subsequently, 2007 is the most recent year that allows for accurate information about HIV testing conducted in STD clinics. Documentation of the provision of posttest counseling was missing for more than 20% of tests; as such, no regression analyses were conducted. As shown in the Table, a total of 372,757 tests from CDC-funded STD clinics in 24 state and local health departments in the U.S. in 2007 were included in the final dataset. In 2007, the highest percentages of tests among people not previously diagnosed with HIV were among males (51.8%), people aged 20–29 years (49.5%), black people (49.6%), those who reported low-risk heterosexual contact (38.9%), people previously tested who were not HIV-positive (57.4%), people testing confidentially (98.2%), and those who did not cite requesting an HIV test as a reason for the visit (62.6%). The newly identified HIV positivity among testers was 0.7%. In 2007, the percentage of tests with provision of posttest counseling was 51.4% overall, 51.3% among those with HIV-negative test results, and 71.2% among those with newly identified HIV-positive test results.

Notably, documentation of provision of posttest counseling was unknown (i.e., missing) for 21.9% of all tests, 22.0% of HIV-negative tests, and 13.3% of newly identified HIV-positive tests. Among newly identified HIV-positive tests, the highest percentage of tests with provision of posttest counseling was among clients who were aged 13–19 years (79.3%), Asian/Pacific Islanders (89.3%), those in the “other” transmission mode category (80.0%), and those who were tested anonymously (81.5%). It should be noted, however, that there were very few individuals in each of these categories, with the exception of people aged 13–19 years. Jan 24, 2008 &#183&nbspHow long does it take to receive std results from planned parenthood? If a physician certifies that a child is in critical or serious condition and the caseworker determines that the child’s condition was due to abuse or neglect, the caseworker must select the severity type Near Fatal. Slight differences were observed by gender, previous test history, and those who requested an HIV test (). The first goal of the National HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Strategy (NHAS) is to reduce the number of people who become infected with HIV.26 As previously stated, knowledge of one’s HIV-positive serostatus can result in a reduction in risk behaviors,3 and people with HIV infection who are treated with antiretroviral medications may have lower viral loads,4–6 thereby decreasing their ability to transmit the infection and improving the quality and duration of their life.

Therefore, HIV testing and receipt of test results and subsequent linkage to care are critical components to the strategy’s first goal. After you confirm your STD test selection, we will send a doctor-authorized test. MSM have been highly impacted by HIV infection since the beginning of the epidemic and may therefore be more aware of the need to know one’s serostatus. Finally, a detailed review was conducted of state laws related to HIV partner services to identify legal concerns and provide a framework of the legal and regulatory environment in which partner services are delivered. Older adults may also have had more exposure to these messages over time and may be more focused on their health than young people. In a study comparing health-promoting behaviors, older adults had higher scores in overall health-promoting lifestyle and in the dimensions of health responsibility than both young and middle-aged adults.34 It is difficult to assess the increased/decreased provision of posttest counseling among people reporting other transmission risks and other race, as the pooling of disparate but less frequently reported risk factors or racial/ethnic groups may mask the unique characteristic that serves as a predictor for these results. It is also important to note, however, that documentation of posttest counseling was missing for more than 20% of the tests.

This figure is similar to the proportion of HIV tests with missing information for documentation of posttest counseling in previous years.12,24 Monitoring and evaluation of HIV testing programs, in any setting, necessitate the documentation of receipt of all test results, and receipt of posttest counseling among people with HIV-positive test results. It may be postulated that the high percentage of tests with missing documentation of posttest counseling stems from the time frame within which test results and posttest counseling are documented. For example, when test results are provided on the same day as the test, as is possible with rapid test technology, the results may be easily documented on an HIV test form or client chart. However, if there is a delay, there may be an increased likelihood that the documentation of test results and posttest counseling may not be properly conducted. The introduction of rapid HIV testing since 2002 should have increased the documentation of posttest counseling,35 which was not observed in these results. However, information on use of a rapid HIV test was not reported to CDC in 2007. This analysis was subject to several limitations.

The testing data presented are not representative of all HIV tests conducted nationally, or even of all HIV testing conducted at CDC-funded STD clinics, as the analysis was limited to those health departments funded by CDC that provided test-level data. Secondly, documentation of posttest counseling was missing for more than 20% of the tests, thereby limiting our ability to conduct statistical analyses. If, in consultation with regional management, danger to a child is indicated, the caseworker must contact the principal, director or superintendent to inform them of the disposition and danger to a child, regardless of whether school is subject to regulation by the Texas Education Agency (TEA). Lastly, provision of test results and posttest counseling used the proxy variable “receipt of posttest counseling.” Although posttest counseling protocol includes the provision of test results to clients, it is recommended that the specific provision of results are documented separately from posttest counseling, to lend assurance that these results were in fact provided. The NHAS acknowledges that it will take more than one approach to HIV prevention to bring an end to the epidemic.26 Multiple approaches should be taken to improve the provision and documentation of HIV test results and posttest counseling. STD clinics should consider offering rapid HIV tests and pairing them with reminders to obtain test results via cell phones, texts, or Internet-based programs in ways that are simple and secure to increase the provision and documentation of HIV test results and posttest counseling. HIV testing programs should assess their quality assurance plans to ensure that the provision of HIV test results takes place and that this activity is documented.

The authors thank Lyle McCormick for his contributions to early analyses of these data. The rationale for use of partner services is that appropriate use of public health resources to identify infected persons, notify their partners of their possible exposure, and provide infected persons and their partners a range of medical, prevention, and psychosocial services can have positive results including 1) positive behavior changes and reduced infectiousness; 2) decreased STD/HIV transmission; and 3) reduced STD/HIV incidence and improved public health (Figure 1). 32. Wilkinson W. HIV/AIDS in Asian and Pacific Islander women. In: Goldstein N, Manlowe JL, editors. The gender politics of HIV/AIDS in women: perspectives on the pandemic in the United States.

New York: New York University Press; 1997. pp. p. 168–87.

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