Recent pattern of Co-infection amongst HIV seropositive individuals in tertiary care hospital, kolkata

Recent pattern of Co-infection amongst HIV seropositive individuals in tertiary care hospital, kolkata

The nucleoside analogues are an important class of antiviral agents now commonly used in the therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Shan, vice president of clinical and regulatory affairs at Peregrine Pharmaceuticals. Experts have suggested this may be due to HSV infection increasing inflammation and accumulation of immune cells vulnerable to HIV. Oncogenic viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Epstein-barr virus (EBV) are the most common viral agents in immunocompromised patients. An estimated 1.6% of the US population carries HCV, as many as three-quarters of whom don’t know they have it3. A 66-year-old woman presented to the department of internal medicine of our hospital on 31 August 2010 with jaundice, inappetence, dizziness, palpitation, and fatigue. Recent (past-6-month) correlates of HCV infection included sharing of syringes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.24; 95% confidence interval = 1.32, 3.82) and greater levels of eigenvector centrality in the drug network.

Recent pattern of Co-infection amongst HIV seropositive individuals in tertiary care hospital, kolkata
To confirm positive serology tests, the extracted viral DNA or RNA was examined for the presence of KSHV, HTLV-I and HCV by conventional PCR. A noteworthy observation in the present study is that the patients who presented HIV associated oral candidiasis without any type of Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) had a median CD4+ count lower than 200 cells/mm3, an associated inverse relationship between CD4+ count and the prevalence of OC could be inferred. The debilitating impact of HIV infection on mucosal Langerhan’s cells and CD4+ population were most probably central to the increased pathogenesis of mucosal candidiasis in HIV patients [23]. The genotyping analysis of the HCV co-infected HIV individuals shows that two belonged to HCV genotype 1 and 8 belonged to genotype 3. Thus the present study depicts OC as the predominant OIs amongst HIV affected individuals in this part of India. Major studies from India [24–27] reports chronic diarrhoea, gastrointestinal infection as the most common OIs associated with HIV patients but our study revealed it to be the second major complication following oral candidiasis whose median CD4+ count was estimated to be around 167 cells/mm3. Organisms causing chronic diarrhoea are usually self-limiting but as the end stage of AIDS approaches they are known to be life threatening too.

The overall mortality rate in FHF is 1–3%; in pregnant women the rate is 15–25%. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the potential degree of influence of syndemics based on a review of an uneven, in many ways limited, but nonetheless suggestive, literature on the health of pregnant women in SSA. After signing informed consent, 10 mL of blood samples was collected from pregnant women in 2 tubes containing EDTA. Since the study had certain limitations with regard to the detailed examination of the stool samples hence the exact etiological agents were not verified as common etiologic agents have already been reported from various parts from India including from this region [28]. Nucleoside analogues can also cause hepatic injury by other mechanisms, such as acute hypersensitivity and perhaps production of toxic intermediates (abacavir, allopurinol), but these forms of liver injury are idiosyncratic and uncommon. The company is pursuing multiple clinical programs in cancer and hepatitis C virus infection with its lead product candidate bavituximab and novel brain cancer agent Cotara. In contrast, the laboratory results of the research team indicated that the drug likely reduced HIV levels by interfering directly with HIV’s reproductive machinery and did not require the presence of HSV-2.

The patients having more than 2 weeks of cough, chest pain and blood along with sputum underwent the sputum microscopy test, the negative samples underwent a generalized antibiotic treatment for 2 weeks so that the other causative agents responsible for the outcome of such type of disease other than TB could be cured, after the antibiotic treatment they again underwent the sputum microscopy test and if the results came out to be negative, chest radiograph was used for the final conclusive result. HEV is also the major cause of sporadic adult acute viral hepatitis and ALF.

You may also like

Recent pattern of Co-infection amongst HIV seropositive individuals in tertiary care hospital, kolkata

Recent pattern of Co-infection amongst HIV seropositive individuals in tertiary care hospital, kolkata

In vitro bypass of damaged DNA by replicative DNA polymerases is usually blocked by helix-distorting or bulky DNA lesions. The conventional diagnostic procedure is time-consuming and false-negative results may occur in submissions from latently infected animals. He tested several mineral solutions and discovered that a Magnesium chloride solution was not only harmless for tissues, but it had a great effect over leucocytic activity and phagocytosis; so it was perfect for external wounds treatment. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References. The HepG2, HepB, SMMC-7721, BEL-7404, and BEL-7405 human HCC cell lines and the HL-7702 human hepatic immortalized cell lines were infected with G47Δ at different multiplicities of infection (MOIs). Our results show that this combined approach achieves improved inhibition of established tumor growth and animal survival compared to oHSV alone or when expressing syngeneic mPAP. The common co-infections/opportunistic infections were OC (53.43%), CD (47.05%), HSV-2 (36.76%), TB (35.29%), CMV (26.96%), HBV (15.19%) and HCV (7.35%).

In this first report of its kind, magnesium chloride throat lozenges appeared to provide rescue benefits in the treatment of asthma equivalent to pharmaceutical asthma drugs. The bimolecular rate constant for inactivation of human ribonucleotide reductase by (A1110U)2Fe+i in the presence of a saturating concentration of A1110U was considerably smaller (3.8 10(6) M-1 hr-1 at 37 degrees) than the analogous constant for the viral enzyme. krameri) and a Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) with similar lesions to the Bourke parrots. This data indicates that Mg2+ is the natural prosthetic group for this enzyme. There was a strengthening of hair and nails, a good effect on diseases typical of the aged (impotency, prostatic hypertrophy, cerebral and circulatory troubles) and on diseases of allergic origin (hay-fever, asthma, urticaria and anaphylactic reactions). Gradually Prof. Luiz Moura (Brazil) – Dosage of magnesium to be used: 20g or 2 level tablespoons in 1 litre of water makes a very good solution.

Currently 2.27 million people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with an estimated adult prevalence rate of 0.31% in India alone [1]. OIs lead to frequent morbidity and mortality which shortens the life span of people with HIV infections and requires expensive treatments which becomes a burden for a developing country like India. Another French doctor, A. 17, No. The most common OIs/co-infections in HIV infected individuals are tuberculosis, chronic diarrhoea, candidiasis, HSV-2, CMV, HCV and HBV. Proline is also beneficial in the formation of bone, skin and cartilage and it is of paramount importance for the proper functioning of joints and tendons. Other things that helps includes Lugol’s iodine half strength at one drop before sleep helps kill it too, but if there is any nausea, you concentrate on iodine painting of the feet you can do it briefly for a week to a month.

The major etiological factors associated with HCC are infection with the hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) viruses, chronic inflammatory liver lesions, necrosis of hepatocytes and subsequent fibrosis, long term exposure to high levels of AFBI or vinyl chloride in the diet, and heavy alcohol consumption [5]. TB prevalence have also increased 3-5 times in Sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade and HIV seroprevalence has been reported to be about 75% among those patients [3]. Samples containing preservatives were prepared by including methylparaben and propylparaben at 0.18% and 0.02% (w/w), respectively, to each of the two compartments. Oral candidiasis (OC) is a collective term for a group of oral mucosal infection caused by a fungal pathogen candida. Microscopically, PD has been characterized by moderate to marked, acute hepatic necrosis with minimal associated inflammation and the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies. Counts of Epstein-Barr virus-infected lymphocytes have been used to monitor lymphoproliferative syndromes in bone marrow transplant recipients [21]. It is defined as persistence of diarrhoea beyond four weeks.

Nuclear cyclin D/cdk complexes are then fully activated by posttranslational modification of cdk by the cdk-activating kinase and cdc25A phosphatase (18,19). 24 months provided the product is stored in its unopened packaging according with suggested precautions for storage. Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) co-infection is associated with increased genital HIV shedding, which may increase transmissibility of HIV [7]. To examine these hypotheses, bandshift and competition assays were used to determine the binding affinities of Pol, UL42, and the Pol/UL42 heterodimer on different templates in the presence or absence of magnesium. CMV infection is more prevalent in populations at risk for HIV infection; approximately 75% of injection drug users and >90% of homosexual men who are infected with HIV have detectable IgG antibodies to CMV [8]. Majority of the persons infected with HIV also may occasionally develop severe hepatobiliary problems pertaining to which liver complications like hepatitis B and hepatitis C are on the rise [9,10]. The ability of HSV-1 to prevent ISG induction does not, however, account for its ability to replicate in cells that have been previously primed with IFN and therefore have been loaded with host defense proteins awaiting a viral trigger.

In a diagnostic laboratory setting, the ELVIRA HSV susceptibility result can be available within 5 days from the time of specimen arrival, which also includes the time needed for determination of the virus titer in the specimen. Serotype 5 was the most difficult to grow and had the most divergent migration pattern (15). Mice were inoculated s.c. Ketamine was supplemented intraperitoneally as necessary. Gengigel® Baby heeft een op de baby aangepaste sterkte hyaluronzuur van slechts 0,2%. Since these opportunistic infections and co-infections have a vital role in clinical presentation and is one of the most frequent cause of mortality among HIV patients, the main objective for this study was to elucidate the current frequency and type of the major opportunistic infections/co-infections in HIV seropositive patients in a HIV/AIDS Apex Clinic of a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata. As there were no reports of hospital based HIV and HCV co-infections from this region, we also included this in our study for better management and greater awareness of this dreadful disease and its complications.

Magnesium oxychloride Cement (3MgO MgCl2> 11H2>O) is a tough stone-like, fire-proof compound that can be used for light or heavy floorings. We also demonstrated increases in CD86, but not in CD80, after culturing for 10d. These patients were from different parts of the Eastern and North Eastern region of India. In sufficient concentrations, magnesium inhibits convulsions by limiting or slowing the spread of the electric discharge from an isolated group of brain cells to the rest of the brain. Animal studies show that even the initial burst of firing nerve cells that starts an epileptic attack can be suppressed with magnesium. Studies by Dr. The diagnosis of the diseases was done according to the guidelines of Centre for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines (CDC) [2].

The patients who had more than two weeks of cough, blood in sputum and chest pain were only considered for the tuberculosis test. The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) was confirmed by microscopic examination of the sputum using acid fast bacilli (Ziehl-Neelsen) staining followed by chest radiogram before coming to a conclusion. The fact of the matter is that we cannot absorb calcium without a sufficient amount of magnesium in our bodies. Oral candidiasis was detected by the clinical presentations and microscopic examination of the yeast forms from the region of oropharynx and this was the sole criterion for the identification of the disease [16]. None of these other forms are as absorbable as Magnesium Chloride, and they do not offer the ability to fight infections as does the Chloride version. The HCV seropositive samples were subjected to RNA extraction using QIAamp Viral RNA mini kit (Qiagen, Germany) according to manufacturer’s protocol. Countries with the highest calcium to magnesium ratios (high calcium and low magnesium levels) in soil and water have the highest incidence of cardiovascular disease.

Two human cell types known to be susceptible to HHV-8 entry, embryonic kidney cells and B lymphocytes, were also suitable targets for cell fusion induced by HHV-8 gB, gH, and gL. The RT-PCR conditions were 42°C for 60 minutes followed by 94°C for 5 minutes followed by 35 cycles of 94°C, 55°C and 72°C for 1 minute each, the final extension step was carried out at 72°C for 5 minutes in an ABI 9700 thermocycler. The Sequence Detection software performs a linear regression and plots the standard curve. At day 12 or 13 postinfection, single-cell suspensions were prepared from tissue blocks by mechanical dissociation. And so have millions of people. The purified products were directly used for DNA sequencing in an automated DNA sequencer (3130XL, ABI, USA) using Big-Dye terminator 3.1 Kit (ABI, USA). The phylogenetic analysis was done using MEGA 4 software and Neighbour-Joining (NJ) method.

Recent pattern of Co-infection amongst HIV seropositive individuals in tertiary care hospital, kolkata
The sequences were aligned with the representative number of sequences for each major genotype selected from the Gene Bank database with the help of multiple sequence alignment software (MEGA 4). Since the rapid detection of infected animals would reduce the potential transmission of the viruses to uninfected herds avoiding the spread of the diseases (11). The evolutionary history was inferred using the Neighbour-Joining method [18]. The optimal tree with the sum of branch length = 0.30199712 is shown. The cell suspension was rapidly frozen on EtOH/dry ice, and viral release was achieved by repeating the freeze-thaw process 3 times to lyse the cells. This indicates that expression of xenogenic hPAP is enhancing antitumor activity. The evolutionary distances were computed using the Maximum Composite Likelihood method [20] and are in the units of the number of base substitutions per site.

All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated from the dataset (complete deletion option). There were a total of 133 positions in the final dataset. , Aitken-Palmer , C. Pairwise comparisons for evolutionary distance for percent nucleotide homology were made by Jukes-cantor algorithms. The statistical analysis was performed using student’s t test. A high phosphorus intake with high calcium and magnesium leads to bone mineralization. Magnesium has a calming effect on the nervous system.

In this study, HIV positive patients were mostly from middle age group (Figure ),CD4+ counts in majority of symptomatic AIDS patients were below 200 cells/mm3(Figure ). Most of the patients were from age group 20-40 (79.9%) years. The average concentration of magnesium phosphate in bones is about 1%, in teeth about 1.5%, in elephant tusks 2% and, in the teeth of carnivorous animals designed to crush bones, it is 5%. Those who die from heart attacks have very low magnesium but high calcium levels in their heart muscles. These migrant workers were largely employed as goldsmiths in Mumbai and Pune (Western region of India). The most identifiable risk factors were extra-marital heterosexual contact and had history of exposure to commercial sex workers. Also with the given % of the Humic and Fulvic acid I got should I still use an 1/8 tsp of each.

The s.c. Generally most of the cases were referred by medical practioners or approached on their own, largely the patients came to the clinic with common complaints of fever, weight loss and diarrhoea, and subsequent investigation revealed them to be HIV seropositive. Due to the clinic being a tertiary care centre hence the true proportional representation of the population could not be accurately ascertained. Only two individuals had HIV infection from blood transfusion, whereas rest all had been infected by heterosexual means. DNA extracted from whole 4-day-old chicken embryos and DNA extracted from the blood of five incubator hatched parrots were used as negative controls. Primers and probe suitable for ABI-PCR amplification of KSHV minor capsid were designed and prepared (Lark Technologies). The varying levels of CD4 counts in the sample study is shown in the alongside figure …

Samples were loaded onto an SDS–polyacrylamide gel and separated by electrophoresis. 74.5% of the co-infected cases were accompanied with fever. Seventeen (8.33%, median CD4+count 481 cells/mm3) individuals had no history of co-infection (3 male and 14 female), among the three affected males, one had been infected from his wife. Our working hypothesis was that the holoenzyme might exhibit affinities for certain configurations of DNA (e.g., dsDNA versus ssDNA) that differ from those of Pol alone. Distribution of various opportunistic infections among HIV infected patients. HCV: Hepatitis C Virus; HBV: Hepatitis B Virus; CMV: Cytomegalovirus; HSV-2: Herpes Simplex virus 2; TB: Tuberculosis; OC: Oral Candidiasis; CD: Chronic Diarrhoea. This allowed us to evaluate both the extent of OAS activity and the size distribution of the oligoadenylate products.

The most frequent dual infections were CD and OC 28.92%, OC and TB 25.49%, CD with TB 21.08%, HSV-2 and OC 19.11%, HSV-2 and CMV 14.21%, HBV and HSV-2 3.92%, HBV and CMV 2.94%, HCV and CMV 1.96%, HCV and HSV-2 1.47%, and the least prevalent one was HCV and HBV 0.49% infection which showed only one case (Figure ). 1). In extracts from HSV-tk cells, >95% of the radioactivity migrated with (N)-MCT after phosphatase treatment (Fig. Multiple co-infections among HIV seropositive individuals. A: Frequency of Dual opportunistic infection and Co-infections in HIV seropositive individuals. OC: Oral Candidiasis; TB: Tuberculosis; CD: Chronic Diarrhoea; HBV: Hepatitis B Virus; HCV: Hepatitis … The frequency of occurrence of multiple viral infection were less when compared to that of the other bacterial and yeast infection i.e., among the HBV infected population only 29.03% had HSV-2 co-infection, 16.12% had CMV co-infection and 3.2% had HCV co-infection; among HCV infected population 6.67% had HBV co-infection, 20% had HSV-2 co-infection and 26% had CMV co-infection respectively (Figure not shown).

There was only one toxoplasmic encephalitis case diagnosed at a later stage of an AIDS patient and subsequently the patient died. Three patients showed Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) clinical presentation but was not confirmed with serology. There was not a single case of Pneumocystis sp. Dr. Chloride, of course, is required to produce a large quantity of gastric acid each day and is also needed to stimulate starch-digesting enzymes. On the basis of DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, two out of ten samples were classified as HCV genotype 1 (20%) and eight belonged to HCV genotype 3 (80%) (Figure ). There was no correlation with CD4 count and HCV genotype.

Electrophoretic pattern of nested RT –PCR and phylogenetic tree of HCV RNA positive individuals. A: Agarose gel picture of nested RT- PCR amplified product of 5’NCR of HCV genome. Lane 1: MW (100 bp DNA ladder); lane 2: positive control; lane … In our study, majority of HIV seropositive patients were (31-40 yrs) in their active sexual stage and most of them were detached from their family for long time. Most of the males were migrant workers or drivers, most female HIV patients were their life partner. Transfusion related HIV acquisition was only ~1% in our study. Calcium and magnesium are opposites in their effects on our body structure.

The cells were washed with ice-cold PBS and then lysed with RIBA buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl [pH 7.5], 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 1% Nonidet P-40, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) containing protease inhibitors (2 μg of aprotinin/ml, 2 μg of leupeptin/ml, and 1 μg of pepstatin A/ml) for 30 min on ice. Oral candidiasis may be considered as a clinical surrogate for severe CD4+ depletion. The 28 natural products that had the highest reactivation levels in the screening experiment are listed in , along with the family to which they belong, country of origin and the induced KSHV level expressed as log10 KSHV copies per 105 cells. The observation that in control tissues the proportion of endogenously infected CD8+ T cells was low (Table and data not shown) indirectly confirms the concept that latent HHV-6 infection in healthy subjects is sustained by strains belonging to subgroup B (17). A noteworthy observation in the present study is that the patients who presented HIV associated oral candidiasis without any type of Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) had a median CD4+ count lower than 200 cells/mm3, an associated inverse relationship between CD4+ count and the prevalence of OC could be inferred. The debilitating impact of HIV infection on mucosal Langerhan’s cells and CD4+ population were most probably central to the increased pathogenesis of mucosal candidiasis in HIV patients [23]. These findings could definitely help our clinicians to use OC as a helpful tool for the diagnosis and detection of progression of HIV in a resource poor country like India.

Thus the present study depicts OC as the predominant OIs amongst HIV affected individuals in this part of India. Major studies from India [24-27] reports chronic diarrhoea, gastrointestinal infection as the most common OIs associated with HIV patients but our study revealed it to be the second major complication following oral candidiasis whose median CD4+ count was estimated to be around 167 cells/mm3. Organisms causing chronic diarrhoea are usually self-limiting but as the end stage of AIDS approaches they are known to be life threatening too. Patients with multiple intestinal infections accompanied with profound and persisting diarrhoea have low CD4+ T-cell counts. The number of undiagnosed patients with CD in a developing and resource poor country like ours is on the increase and needs to be properly addressed for better management of HIV related mortality. Immunodeficiency increases the risk of having opportunistic parasites and diarrhoea; therefore it is imperative that health care providers specifically evaluate their HIV infected patients for diarrhoea to increase their quality of life. Since the study had certain limitations with regard to the detailed examination of the stool samples hence the exact etiological agents were not verified as common etiologic agents have already been reported from various parts from India including from this region [28].

TB is one of the most common type of OIs associated with HIV as reported in a study conducted in north-India [2] and this may be associated with endemic factors such as malnutrition, poor hygiene, poverty, migrant population and unemployment which are widely prevalent in this area. In our study, 35.29% of the patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis which was not surprising as TB (median CD4+, 137 cells/mm3) is one of the disease which is increasing in India and our data is in accordance with the other published data from this part of India [21,22]. In Diseases of Poultry, 12th edn, Edited by: Saif , Y.M. The patients having more than 2 weeks of cough, chest pain and blood along with sputum underwent the sputum microscopy test, the negative samples underwent a generalized antibiotic treatment for 2 weeks so that the other causative agents responsible for the outcome of such type of disease other than TB could be cured, after the antibiotic treatment they again underwent the sputum microscopy test and if the results came out to be negative, chest radiograph was used for the final conclusive result. This process of detection helped us to minimize errors to a large extent.

You may also like