Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the new cases of herpes simplex type – 2, trichomoniasis and candidiasis are rapidly approaching and, in certain instances, have surpassed the annual cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. Many of these diseases can cause great harm or become widely spread before the symptoms of the disease are even detected. Pregnancy appears to have a benign effect on syphilis in the mother, but the fetus is likely to suffer from abortion, intrauterine death, intrauterine growth retardation, and congenital syphilis, underscoring the need for serologic testing of symptomatic pregnant women and treatment with penicillin. A significantly higher percentage of the patients with herpesvirus took oral contraceptives. The expected number of such clusters is estimated to be 4. The recent Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines issued in 2006 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends penicillin G as the preferred treatment of all stages of syphilis. Female have significant higher prevalence (p < 0.05). These incidence rates certainly indicate a need for our educational programs to include trichomoniasis and herpes simplex, as well as the traditional coverage of gonorrhea and syphilis, in our health education classes. In the early stages, HIV can cause fevers, rashes, joint pains, and other non-specific symptoms. Out of total 23 Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM positive, 5 (21.73%) were HIV reactive. Discussion and Conclusion: Though Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in sexually transmitted diseases is less diagnostic, it helps to see the iceberg part of the infection among the population concerned recently. Putting STD surveillance systems in place specially in areas with high prevalence of HIV will be crucial in monitoring changes so that appropriate adjustments can be made to treatment schedules to make them more cost effective. Sexually transmitted diseases are markers of high risk sexual behavior. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 cause genital herpes infections and are the most common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide , Considering that herpes is a life long infection, not cured by antimicrobial treatment, HSV-2 antibodies are a much more reliable indicator of risky behavior than Treponema palladium antibodies.
, As large number of genital infections are also caused by HSV-1. However, what with all the oral sex those darned kids these days engage in, either infection can now appear in either place. In our study, out of 150 patients we found 23 (15.66%) positive for Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM from all the STD patients. Out of these 150 we also found 35 (23.33%) were reactive for HIV-1 and 2 antibody testing In disease wise analysis, numbers of genital herpes were the highest among all diseases. All other STDs and their positivity of serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM antibodies as well as HIV reactivity are as described in [Table 1]. 98 male and 52 female out of 150 STD patients, 10 male and 13 female were positive for Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM. Female have statistically significant higher positive proportion than male.
(p < 0.05%).Though in study, there was no bar in age group selection, majority of the patients (>97%) of all STDs fall in to 15- 49 age group. An HPV vaccine has recently been released for protection against certain, but not all, strains of HPV. For all 23 HSV1&2 IgM antibody positive individual, HIV co infection rate is 21.73% (5 out of 23) [Table 3]. This study applies the clinical presentation of STD and serological herpetic infection correlation in a STD clinic of a tertiary care hospital in India. Using Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM testing provides valuable information that will help in interpreting the test result of Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in any STD patients as many times serological test reports are given unnecessary higher importance without knowing the surrounding factors. The herpes simplex virus persists life-long in neuronal cells (especially in trigeminal and sacral ganglia) and is frequently reactivated with or without clinical manifestations.  This study effectively shows that when the disease (e.g.
Genital Herpes) whose prevalence is more in population concerned and have latent period, its serological test especially detecting IgM only helps in screening to detect the burden of the disease but has less correlation with the clinical symptoms. A higher seroprevalence of HSV-1 and or 2 among females as compared to males has been recorded in the studies in India and outside India. Higher seroprevalence among younger women of compared to men of a similar age group was observed. ,, In our study, the prevalence of HSV-1 and 2 among males was 10% (10 out of 98) which was less compared to females 25% (13 out of 52), particularly the 21-30 age group, the male to female difference is more 8% to 35% respectively. These differences were statistically significant.