A sexually transmitted disease (STD), also known as sexually transmitted infection (STI) or venereal disease (VD), is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. For instance, pubic lice (also known as Crabs) can be spread through wet towels, loofahs, bedsheets, and wet clothing. However, a large number of those infections could be avoided if people made different decisions about their sexual health. Like other STI’s young people share a disproportionate burden of gonorrhoea. The mean age was 32.2 years (range 16-65 years). More than 20 STDs have been identified. Specifically, the term STD refers only to infections that are causing symptoms.
These are organic infections—they can occur without being transmitted from anyone—but they can be just as uncomfortable as some STIs. That’s why it’s so important to get tested before you have sex with a new partner. By the second quarter of 2003, 57,763 infected individuals had been reported since data was first collected in 1982. Some STDs cause no symptoms, but can still be passed from person to person even if there are no symptoms. STDs occur most commonly in sexually active teenagers and young adults, especially those with multiple sex partners. The shaft of the penis is particularly susceptible due to the friction caused during penetrative sex. One in two sexually active persons will contract a STD by age 25.
However, being lied to can ruin a relationship. Even if the wart is not visible, infected individuals can still transmit the virus. Department of Health and Human Services, in the United States more than 13 million people are infected each year and more than 65 million have an incurable STD. The only sure ways to avoid becoming infected with an STD are abstinence or monogamy with an uninfected partner. Herpes simplex and HPV are both examples. Prevention is possible only if sexually active individuals understand STDs and how they are spread. Symptoms are not a reliable way of determining if someone has an STD.
In 30-50% babies born to infected mothers, neonatal conjunctivitis and, less commonly, pneumonitis (presenting commonly between 4-12 weeks of age) can occur. Brown, Ph.D., 778 words, 3 pages. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a deadly disease caused by a virus. Most attention has focused on controlling HIV, which causes AIDS, but each STD presents a different situation. A person with AIDS is vulnerable to infections and certain kinds of cancer that take advantage of the body’s lowered ability to fight back. AIDS does not kill directly. This is caused by 2 types of virus HSV1 and HSV2.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a term for the virus that causes AIDS. HIV is a type of virus that causes a number of health problems ranging from symptomless infection, to changes in the immune system and the development of life-threatening diseases because of lower immunity. Healthcare professionals suggest safer sex, such as the use of condoms, as the most reliable way of decreasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases during sexual activity, but safer sex should by no means be considered an absolute safeguard. It may take years to develop ARC after infection with the AIDS virus. Most people who develop ARC also will develop full-blown AIDS. Recurrent episodes are usually mild and resolve in 3-4 days. Chlamydia, by Waln K.
Brown, Ph.D., 795 words, 3 pages. The effect of travel is most dramatically illustrated by the rapid spread of the AIDS virus (HIV-1) from Africa to Europe and the Americas in the late 1970s. Nearly four million Americans get a chlamydia infection each year. Many people do not know they may have chlamydia until a sex-partner is diagnosed. This may occur within 2 years of infection. A number of tests are available to diagnose chlamydial infections. These tests reveal chlamydia even when there are no symptoms.
Typically, a cotton swab collects a small amount of fluid from the infected site. If left untreated, chlamydial infections can cause health problems for both males and females, including painful infection, permanent damage to the reproductive organs, infertility and sterility. Pregnant females also may suffer birth complications. Common AIDS presentations include TB, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, cerebral abscesses, retinitis (caused by the CMV virus) or (PCP) pneumonia. Brown, Ph.D., 898 words, 3 pages. Herpes is the name given to a group of viruses that cause a number of human illnesses. Herpes is a Greek word that means – ‘to creep.’ The Herpes virus can hide inside the body for a long time without causing harm.
Then, all of a sudden, it can creep out of hiding and cause problems. Almost everyone gets at least one herpes infection at some time in their life. 5-10% will develop a chronic infection and 90% of babies born to infectious mothers will become carriers. Examples of non-STD herpes infections include chicken pox, shingles, severe infections, recurrent illnesses, infectious mononucleosis, non-venereal cold sores and fever blisters. There are two strains of the herpes simplex virus. Both strains cause cold sores and fever blisters, and both strains pass from person-to-person by physical contact. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is non-venereal and is passed by kissing or touching someone with a cold sore or fever blister.
Generally, HSV-1 occurs above the waist. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is strictly speaking a non-sexually acquired infection. Genital herpes and HSV-2 are different terms for the same STD. Generally, HSV-2 occurs below the waist. Genital Warts, by Waln K. Brown, Ph.D., 880 words, 3 pages. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the name of a group of more than 60 viruses.
The symptoms is testicular pain, one or both sides, swelling and redness. Sometimes, however, HPV infection causes no warts, and many people with genital HPV do not know they have it. A contagious virus spread primarily through genital-genital, genital-anal and oral-genital interaction causes genital warts. They may appear several months after being infected. Sometimes, no visible symptoms develop. It is common for a person with genital warts to have several other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) at the same time. If untreated, the condition can lead to chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy and infertility.
As many as one million cases are diagnosed each year, and tens of millions of Americans have HPV infection. In some cities, HPV spreads faster than herpes, Chlamydia, syphilis or gonorrhea. Gonorrhea, by Waln K. Brown, Ph.D., 816 words, 3 pages. Gonorrhea is one of the most common and dangerous sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Appointments for Wednesday evening are filled extremely quickly and are usually gone by 9.00am. Also called ‘the clap,’ gonorrhea is an infection caused by small coffee-bean-shaped germs called ‘gonococci’ that always grow together in pairs.
Gonorrhea spreads mainly from the infected person to his/her sexual partner through vaginal or anal sex. However, a growing form of transmission is through oral-genital contact. In fact, about 5% of all gonorrhea patients have throat infections. The germ that causes gonorrhea does not last long outside the human body. Therefore, there are no external sores or lesions. Generally, initial symptoms develop between two and ten days after being infected, but can take longer. Hepatitis B, by Waln K.
Brown, Ph.D., 745 words, 3 pages. Hepatitis B symptoms occur 40-180 days after exposure. People can also be ‘carriers’ of the virus. This means they have the virus in their blood and can pass it to someone else without knowing it or having active symptoms. Sometimes the virus stays in the body forever, causing periodic symptoms. Hepatitis B causes major damage to the liver. If a person is in good health and there are no major complications, the liver will usually repair itself.
Severe cases and those with complications can develop permanent liver damage. This causes liver failure and death in about 1% of cases. Practicing STD-Free Sex, by Waln K. Brown, Ph.D., 925 words, 3 pages. STD-free sex is the act of protecting against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Practicing STD-free sex means knowing the facts about STDs and following certain rules of conduct that can greatly reduce the chance of infection. By practicing STD-free sex, you can eliminate the risky behaviors that cause transmitting STDs between sex partners.
The result is a physically healthy and worry-free sex-life. Pubic Lice, by Waln K. Brown, Ph.D., 745 words, 3 pages. ‘Crabs’ is another name for pubic lice. Pubic lice are one of three types of lice that infect humans. The other two types are ‘body lice’ and ‘head lice’ Pubic lice cause a disease called ‘Pidiculosis pedis.’ Pubic lice are easy to cure. Pubic lice, and their eggs called ‘nits,’ are big enough to see without a microscope.
They live and breed where there is coarse hair. Pubic lice are tiny parasites with a crab-shaped body. They live off the blood of the host. The lice look like dark specks. The nits look like white specks. They are both visible on and around the infected hairs. The most common way to transmit pubic lice is by intimate physical contact.
That is why pubic lice are classified a Sexually-Transmitted Disease (STD). Unlike many other STDs, however, one can get pubic lice by sharing toilet seats, clothing, sheets or towels with an infected person. Infected loose hairs can drop on shared objects and pass along the disease. Scabies, by Waln K. Brown, Ph.D., 703 words, 3 pages. Scabies is a skin disease caused by an itch mite called ‘Sarcoptes Scabiei.’ These mites are tiny parasites that burrow under the surface of the skin, where they live and lay their eggs. They are too small to see without a microscope.
Scabies is a common disease that is easy to cure. Scabies is VERY contagious. Because it is generally transmitted from one person to another through close personal contact, it is classified a Sexually-Transmitted Disease (STD). Unlike many other STDs, however, nonsexual contact can also transmit scabies. Scabies is quite common in school-age children, who may contract the disease from infested bed sheets, clothing, towels and even furniture. Syphilis, by Waln K. Brown, Ph.D., 885 words, 3 pages.
Syphilis is an infection caused by a ‘spirochete’ (tiny spiral germ) called ‘treponema pallidum.’ Entering the body through any tiny break in the skin, the germ burrows into the bloodstream and grows quickly in the warm, moist membranes of the genital tract. Within a week or so, a sore appears at the point of infection. The first symptom of syphilis is usually a small painless sore. The sore usually appears exactly where the germ entered the body: mouth, throat, vagina, rectum or penis. The incubation period before it appears ranges from 10 to 90 days (three to four weeks being the average). Without treatment, the primary sore heals in about four to 10 weeks. The surface warning sign vanishes but danger of internal damage remains.
Syphilis is a ‘tricky’ STD because the initial symptoms can go away in a few days by themselves. Unfortunately, however, the syphilis infection does not go away when the first sore heals and disappears. Rather, it continues growing inside the body and, if left untreated, goes through four stages of development: 1) primary syphilis, 2) secondary syphilis, 3) latent syphilis and 4) late syphilis. Trichomoniasis, by Waln K. Brown, Ph.D., 726 words, 3 pages. Trichomoniasis (also called ‘trich’) is a sexually-transmitted disease (STD) caused by a germ that grows and reproduces very well in a warm, moist, slightly acidic environment such as the vagina. Once considered almost entirely a ‘female disease,’ medical science now recognizes that males also can have the infection in the urinary tract.
However, most infected males have no symptoms. Rather, they simply ‘carry’ the infection. Trich is one of the most common women’s STDs in America. Trich infects about three million American women each year. Some estimates suggest that one in five sexually active females has trich during her lifetime. Perhaps as many as 10% of all females have trich; however, not all of them exhibit the symtpoms. Some females seem to have immunity, while others are very vulnerable.
What To Do If You Have A STD, by Waln K. Brown, Ph.D., 881 words, 3 pages. ANYONE who has sexual contact with someone else can get a STD. Tests and examinations by a doctor are the only way to tell for sure if you have a STD. Telephone several offices or clinics and ask questions about the types of services and tests they offer. Ask about costs and methods of payment. The tests may be free, but there may be a charge for the visit.
The doctor will ask questions about your medical history, general health and sexual activity. The doctor will examine your genital area. Women will have an internal pelvic exam. Samples of blood and body fluids may be tested. Medicines may be prescribed. The exam will also include education about STDs, counseling about how to use the medicines correctly and how to help your sex partner(s) who also may be infected.