Vaccination has been important in controlling a wide variety of viral and bacterial infections of man and animals. The vaccine elicited both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in 97% of the subjects without past HSV infections and boosted significantly the cell-mediated immunity and antibody titers in almost all the patients with recurrent HSV 1 or HSV 2. To study this, we used the pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection model in the natural host, the pig. Immune protection against herpes keratitis was concurrently evaluated in the immunized mice after HSV-1 challenge of the mouse cornea. We sought to investigate this question by comparing two different vaccine modalities in the HSV-2 mouse model. HSV replicates in epithelial cells and establishes life-long latent infection in neuronal cell bodies within the sensory ganglia of infected individuals. Immunized mice showed a significant increase in numbers of CD4+T cells infiltrating the trigeminal ganglia at day 6 post infection compared to sham-immunized mice.
DNA vaccination seemed not to suffer from suppression by maternal immunity and resulted in similar or stronger immune responses in maternally immune piglets as compared in naïve piglets. Immunization with gD-ASOR decreased the severity of acute ocular HSV-1 infection, induced a CD4+ T cell response, decreased the viral load in the trigeminal ganglia, but did not diminish viral latency.