The Journal of Antibiotics – Cyanobacteria: an emerging source for drug discovery

The Journal of Antibiotics - Cyanobacteria: an emerging source for drug discovery

In rare cases, cold sores can also be caused by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). But in the United States, medical researchers have generally been lukewarm at best about investigating the undeniable curative properties of plants. Lance Armstrong is equal 4th with 22 stage wins. Herpes Cure 2016 our community, made up of sufferers, scientists and other experts alike, to discuss whether or not there will be a cure next year and, if so, where it will come from.” Since there is still no Herpes cure 2016 is being looked at with the hope that an effective treatment will finally be discovered. The researchers took a look at the genes of 618 people, 355 of whom had the herpes simplex virus type 1. Herpes could be curable with going on a proper raw food diet and if you follow and pay attention to the easy steps and principles of nature. Well, no, a remedy hasn’t been found, and yes, it is still a problem as sexually transmitted conditions go.

If all the funds raised for cancer research study were devoted to putting this easy treatment in the hands of every males and female on the planet, we could not only mark out cancer completely however also have a world that is without disease. What many people are likewise not knowledgeable about is the herpes virus doesn’t even need to be in an active” state for a partner to become infected. The emails send you to an even slicker web siteasking for the low cost” of $37 for an ebook ensured to cure herpes in 17 days” in addition to some extra associated handouts.. More than one in five Americans – 45 million individuals – are infected with herpes. That means, when the contaminated area of the herpes carrier touches an area of the skin of another individual, the virus spreads. Thousands of people have been carrying herpes for years with no understanding of it. They have a typical prokaryotic cell organization but like eukaryotes have an elaborate system of internal membranes responsible for both respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport.

This week both LiveStrong and Dr. Herpes Home Remedies – Natural Herpes Cure 2013 – Heal Herpes Naturally.herpes home remedies natural herpes cure 2013 heal herpes naturally Get it nichefindergetridofherpes Herpes rash is caused by a virus.. They use same electron transport machinery for both photosynthesis and respiration. Although photoautotrophy is the major mode of nutrition in cyanobacteria,7 some species exhibit a photoheterotrophic mode8 by utilizing glucose as a carbon and energy source in the dark. The morphology of cyanobacteria varies from unicellular to filamentous or colonial forms. The colonies are often surrounded by a mucilaginous or gelatinous sheath, depending on environmental conditions. Many people choose to treat herpes simplex because treatment can relieve symptoms and shorten an outbreak.

Chemotherapy can be the primary treatment with cancers such as these: certain lymphomas, childhood and some adult forms of Hodgkin’s disease , Wilms’ tumor, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma , and small cell lung cancer. Cyanobacteria inhabit almost all the habitats on earth; from bare rock to soil and from water to air. Although they are in the main free living, symbioses of some species with plant and animal species are not uncommon. Your vet will need to be alone there infected. NDM-1 is changing common bugs that drugs once easily defeated into untreatable killers, says Timothy Walsh, a professor of medical microbiology at Cardiff University in Wales. Since then, smallpox vaccines were developed and used until the virus’ eradication. As a result, cancer is still among the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

This is known as a secondary infection. Findeisen said, researchers have scaled down their expectations and are instead hoping to find compounds that, while not necessarily fully effective by themselves, provide the basis for a more rapid synthesis of a workable drug. Immediate treatments is therefore paramount to clear skin. Curacin A, first isolated from Lyngbya majuscula by Gerwick et al.,23 appeared to be a potent tubulin interactive compound but was so insoluble that its bioactivity could not be demonstrated in in vivo animal models. To improve on the solubility of natural curacin A, a number of soluble semi-synthetic derivatives have been generated using combinatorial chemical techniques. Currently, these compounds are undergoing preclinical evaluation as potential future anticancer drugs. Dolastatin 10, which was originally isolated in very low quantity from the sea hare Dolabella auricularia, is actually a cyanobacterial metabolite, as confirmed by its direct isolation from a Symploca sp.24 It is a pentapeptide containing four unique amino acids, dolavaline, dolaisoleucine, dolaproline and dolaphenine.

It is a potent antiproliferative agent with an ED50 of 4.6 × 10−5 μg ml–1. It binds to tubulin on the rhizoxin-binding site and affects microtubule assembly arresting the cell into G2/M phase. Unfortunately, in clinical tests, its phase II trial as a single agent was discontinued because of the development of peripheral neuropathy in 40% of patients and the lack of significant activity in patients with hormone refractory metastatic adenocarcinoma25 and recurrent platinum sensitive adenocarcinoma.26 An analogue of dolastatin 10, TZT-1027 (auristatin PE or soblidotin), which differs only in the absence of the thiazoline ring from the dolaphenine residue, was found to be effective in two human xenograft models, MX-1 breast carcinoma and LX-1 lung carcinoma in mice.27 It showed equivalent efficacy against both p53 normal and mutant cell lines.28 Bhaskar et al.29 demonstrated that a conjugate of auristatin with a monoclonal antibody directed to the adhesion molecule E-selectin inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells by up to 85% in a mouse model. The photosynthetic pigment C-PC is reported to have various pharmacological characteristics including anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities because of its β-subunit. The recombinant β-subunit of C-PC has been demonstrated to have anticancer properties. Recombinant C-PC/β, tested on four different cell lines exhibited a high rate of proliferation inhibition and apoptotic induction. It has been shown that the recombinant protein interacts with membrane-associated β-tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

The Journal of Antibiotics - Cyanobacteria: an emerging source for drug discovery
In addition, the nuclear level of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased significantly.33 These properties suggest that C-PC/β may have promise as a cancer prevention or therapy agent. Tolyporphin from Tolypothrix nodosa exhibits a potent photosensitizing activity against tumor cells and is 5000 times more effective than the photodynamic treatment (photofrin II).34 Somocystinamide A (ScA) was isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. It is a pluripotent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. It induces apoptosis in tumor and angiogenic endothelial cells. In vitro, picomolar concentrations of somocystinamide A are sufficient to disrupt proliferation and tubule formation in endothelial cells.35 In addition, there are numerous other anticancer cyanobacterial metabolites that have not been covered here as their mechanisms of action have yet to be determined. The global spread of deadly viral diseases like HIV–acquired immune deficiency syndrome and dengue may have dramatic consequences. Zinc preparations have been shown to inhibit the replication of herpes simplex in the test tube.

Intramuscular (IM) chemotherapy is injected into a muscle. Their structures are depicted in Table 2. The most significant antiviral cancer polysaccharides are spirulan and Ca-spirulan from Spirulina sp. These compounds from the extracts of cyanobacteria showed potent and broad-spectrum activity against HIV-1, HIV-2, H, influenza and a series of other enveloped viruses. Kakkar and others worry about NDM-1 because unlike germs such as VRE, short for the vancomycin-resistant enterococci bug that can cause infection around a patient’s surgical incision, NDM-1 is spreading beyond hospitals. These sulfated polysaccharides prevent virus-cell attachment and fusion with host cells. They also inhibit the fusion between HIV-infected and uninfected CD4+ lymphocytes, a mechanism that greatly enhances viral infectivity.

These compounds have advantages as antiviral agents over other sulfated polysaccharides because of reduced anticoagulant properties.37 Also noteworthy is nostoflan, an acidic polysaccharide from Nostoc flagelliforme that exhibits potent virucidal activity against herpes simplex virus-1 (ref. 38). Such things should always be bought from well trusted manufacturers. These carbohydrate-binding proteins show antiviral activity by interfering with multiple steps in the viral fusion process. In addition, two cyclic depsipeptides, ichthyopeptins A and B, were also isolated from Microcystis ichthyoblabe. They show antiviral activity against influenza A virus with an IC50 value of 12.5 μg ml–1 (ref. 44).

According to an estimate of World Health Organization, more than one billion people throughout the world are suffering from tropical diseases caused by Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Schistosoma and others.59 The failures in the treatment of these diseases, especially in cases of malaria60 and leishmaniasis,61 are due to development of resistance by these protozoa. On the other hand, progress in the advancement of drug discovery programs against these diseases is very slow.62 In an effort to encourage the development of effective and affordable treatment of these diseases, the Panamanian International Co-operative Biodiversity Group is screening extracts from terrestrial and marine sources. Recently, this project has reported the isolation of five classes of antiprotozoal compounds from cyanobacteria (Table 4). In addition, the protease inhibitor, nostocarboline,67 an alkaloid isolated from Nostoc sp. 78-12 A was also found to be active against Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values ranging from 0.5 to 0.194 μM. Aerucyclamide C68 isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 was also found to be active against T. brucei, and the already known aerucyclamide B against P.

falciparum with submicromolar IC50 values. Clark et al.69 isolated six new acyl proline derivatives, tumonoic acids D-I, from the marine cyanobacterium Blennothrix cantharidosmum among which tumonoic acid I displayed moderate activity in an antimalarial assay (IC50 2 μM). The discovery of new protease inhibitors may be of great pharmaceutical value. Jaspars and Lawton13 described some protease inhibitors of cyanobacterial origin, like microginins, aeruginosins and cyanopeptolins. Microginins are used in the treatment of high blood pressure. Serine protease inhibitors like cyanopeptolin are applied in the treatment of conditions such as asthma and viral infections. I tried everything: ointments, capsules, creams alternative cures, every book I could find online.

The radiologically placed catheter is initially inserted into an artery in the person’s arm or leg, and then it is guided to its final destination near the tumor, where it can remain for an extended period. Kempopeptin A, a cyclodepsipeptide from a marine Lyngbya sp. exhibited an IC50 of 0.32 μM against elastase and 2.6 μM against chymotrypsin, whereas kempopeptin B inhibited trypsin with an IC50 of 8.4 μM. The immunotoxicity of a cyanobacterial bloom extract containing microcystin was reported for the first time by Shen et al.83 Treatment with cyanobacterial bloom extract resulted in the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced lymphoproliferation and the dose-dependent decrease in the numbers of antibody-forming cells in mice that were immunized by using T-dependent antigen sheep red blood cells. He reached out to Walsh, whose Cardiff lab was at the forefront of international antibiotic resistance research. Shi et al.84 evaluated the effect of cyanobacterial bloom extract containing microcystins on the expression of multiple cytokines, including proinflammatory (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6) and Th1/Th2-related cytokines (IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10) in vivo. They observed the distinct patterns of expression of these cytokines suggesting a modulation of cytokine networks.

Cyanobacteria constitute a unique group of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and populate diverse habitats throughout the world. Their potential as a good source of new therapeutic lead compounds has been realized during the last two decades. We have discussed several bioactive molecules obtained from cyanobacteria showing a broad spectrum of activities, such as antitumor, antibacterial and antiviral effects and protease inhibition. Another advantage of cyanobacteria as a microbial source for drug discovery lies in the economy of their cultivation compared with other microorganisms, as they require only simple inorganic nutrients for growth. Thus, it seems that the cyanobacteria have the potential for expanded utilization in drug discovery. Despite their potent biological activities, very few cyanobacterial compounds have entered clinical trials and no cyanobacterially derived compound has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. In our opinion, the pharmaceutical potential of cyanobacteria deserves more scientific attention and interdisciplinary research.

Further, to find novel compounds, cyanobacterial strains from still unexplored and extreme habitats should also be studied.

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