Summary: This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and to evaluate its association with age, sex and other demographic and behavioural factors in 150 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive adult patients attending the general medical outpatient ward for routine care of Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. In addition, asymptomatic shedding of herpesviruses may play a significant role in transmission from person to person. The mean numbers of plaques were reduced by 52% by IFN-α, 36% by IFN-γ, and by 62% when IFN-α and IFN-γ were combined, and the mean plaque size was reduced by 64, 43, and 72%, respectively. Subclones derived from a given transformed line inherited the degree of stability of the parental line. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, essential oils were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. Both propolis extracts exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against HSV-2 in viral suspension tests, infectivity was significantly reduced by >99% and a direct concentration- and time-dependent antiherpetic activity could be demonstrated for both extracts.
These analyses reveal that adding sex structure to the basic (single sex) HSV-2 model (considered in (40]) does not alter the (main qualitative) dynamics of the single sex model. Numerical simulations of the extended model show that, for low treatment rates, very high condom compliance will be required to effectively control the spread of the disease in the absence of vaccination. Considering the lipophilic nature of lemon balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections. The risk factors for groups 1 [HSV2 Infection] and 2 [HSV2 & HIV co-infection] were similar with few differences, thus buttressing the fact that their modes of transmission are similar. Both CD4 and CD8 cytotoxic T cells are active in lesions, probably sequentially, and CD4 lymphocytes are the main initial source of cytokines (8, 9,17, 18, 28).