16 children (median age at transplantation 11.0 years) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 19 children (median age at transplantation 1.0 year) with congenital heart disease (CHD), previously found to be negative for other cardiotropic viruses such as enteroviruses, adenovirus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus, were tested for HHV-6 by quantitative real-time PCR and by genotyping. However, the impact of HHV-6 on AlloHCT outcomes remains to be elucidated. The biological consequences of chromosomal integration by HHV-6 remain unknown. RESULTS: Active HHV-6 infection was demonstrated in four children: a bone marrow transplant recipient with concomitant adenovirus infection, a patient with hepatitis of unknown aetiology, a patient with congenital anomalies, and a patient with congenital immunodeficiency. Primary infection seems to occur early in life, and reactivation or delayed primary infection may be associated with a variety of disorders. We observed an approximately 40% KSHV seropositive rate among infected children at time points after primary seroconversion, indicating that seroreversion is common after primary KSHV infection. The risk of acquisition of KSHV was higher among children of KSHV-seropositive mothers.
Although KSHV seroprevalence was significantly higher in children and mothers who were infected with HIV, the HIV status of the mother was only marginally associated with an increased risk of KSHV seropositivity in the child.